Sea level rise and salinization

Climate change practice for South Pacific Island Nations: Sea level rise and salinization

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The Pacific Island people tend to live today on the island along the coasts with the foods available onshore and offshore. This comes with the Pacific Island with the setting on the sea level changes. The focus is on the occasions with the sea level change that affects other coastal bio productivity with the island society. The transformation is based on the consequences with the loss of productivity land that comes through the direct flooding, shoreline erosion and the salinization of the groundwater. The response are related to the information which are related to the climate linked changes with the unsustainable human pressures that comes on the coastal zones with the sustainable adaptation on the livelihoods with the urgent need to be effect. The lessons are determined on the cultural and environmental appropriate forms with the coastal livelihood that are determined with the coastal settlements which are for the relocation. The anticipation is based on the needs and the planning with the island geography and the settlement patterns. The anticipation of the needs comes with planning and island geography with the economic development on the forcing on the seal level rise.

Table of Contents


The land area on the Pacific Island with the largest ocean with the encompassing of the diversity on the island types and cultural traditional with the focus on the foods with the situations related to the food crisis which are for the coastal dwellers with handling the nearshore areas. It comes with the situation that tend to continue with the forms with the today planning where there are sea level rise with compounding by the unsustainable demands that comes with the coastal environment with the reduced near short with the bio productivity with the forced nearby coastal dwellers. The focus is on the validity of the claims with the short term climate variability and increased exposure for the terrestrial systems which comes through the deforestation. This comes with the validity claims that includes the potential for the continued sustainability on the human environment interactions. The emerging forms with the evaluating on the emerging ideas with the force of the societal changes on the ranges with the sea level change. The focus is on the change with attempt to handle the contributions with livelihood on the changes with the island coasts. The key issues are related on the responsibility with shaping future that comes with interventions to ensure about the sustainable future for the people. The analogues are related to the sustainable future with the occupied forms on the fragile environment.

Literature Review

The understanding is based on the communities on not affecting uniformly with rising sea level with the economic activities that sustain them. The examples are related on the experienced floods with the increased frequency and the extent over the 10-20 years, The other factors includes the exacerbation of the sea level rise with diversion on the convincing decision makers with the relocation at the vulnerable parts which is inevitable. The standards are related to the protection by the convincing of the artificial structures with the century progress (Hay et al., 2003). The key issues are for the present with the settlement and food production with the standards on the uninhabitable affected by the future rise sea level. The planning purpose includes the sea level impacts in isolation with the parallel threats with the climate change which includes the temperature rise with the stress current food production system. The ecosystems are for the less productive profound and widespread consequences.

The articulations are for the people with the consequent generations with determining the responses that relate to the embryonic concerns with the reflection on enabling the effective and the sustainable adaptation. The examples are related to the forms with building the seawall with simply transfer with shoreline erosion which are designed poorly which comes with the external funding projects and climate changes. The issue is about the sustainable effective adaptation for the Pacific islands with the assumption on showing the communities with the barriers to the sustaining of the effective change that comes with the acknowledging of the region people (Bakare et al., 2020). The climate change includes the adaptation with the effective forms and sustaining in Pacific Islands regions with the people on the cultural contexts and gender roles with the NGOs with the Island government. The external funding on the climate change adaptation that comes with the government leaders with the national priorities with costs of climate change. The reduced forms includes the increased costs of climate change adaptation with the decreased income. The leadership is the success of embedding and sustaining of the effective climate change which comes on the nations, dwindling from core to periphery (Lese et al., 2017). The religious beliefs are widespread with the issues that requires to focus on acknowledging the influences with the effective agents that comes with the sustainable adaptation to the change of the Pacific Island.

The analogues are related to the validity of the claims with the continued contemporary forms with emerging interactions. The discussion is about the livelihood change on the occupying with the fragile environment. The earliest settlement period is about the forms which includes the increased contribution for the non-marine periods. It comes with the production and then working the relocation with the dominant method for the food acquisition and the replacement. There are other changes which relates to the cultural transformation with the slow exposures or the shoaling offshore systems. It has led to the progressive reduction bio-productivity with handling the supply of the subsistence that is needed for the coastal population (Storlazzi et al., 2017). The extirpation of the giant is based on the replacement of the labour light food acquisition strategies with the carving and the pottery decoration. It comes with the rapid change of the livelihood with the experiences related to the fortifiable locations. There are different explanations based on the changes that tend to appear with the records. The argument is based on the shoaling of the lagoons with the high evidences of conflicts. The effects of the sea level rise on the Pacific Island livelihood with the focus on reduced bio productivity. The shoreline erosion and the direct flooding and the salinization of the groundwater includes the association to the interannual variations. The effects are related to the sea level rise with the handling of the severe flooding and the storm erosion at the different times. It is resulted to the increased exposure with the increased coastal development with the population density with the effects of the human adaptive response (Leal et al., 2018).

The environmental changes are related to the sea level changes with the effect on the sea level rise with the low lying Pacific Island coasts. The coastal settlements tend to extend on the inland with the shifting that includes the examples of the shoreline erosion with the Pacific Island with the few examples with the saline groundwater. The flooding areas includes the consideration with the livelihood on the atoll islands. The example are permanent with the Pacific Island with the mass media on the research which includes the concerns related to the Pacific islands which are set with the geomorphic changes. The sea level rise has been affecting the coastal food supply with the expected different parts coasts with the dynamic equilibrium on the sea level. The sea level rise includes the affecting on the coastal food suppliers with the salinization of the productive land for the coastal wetlands, with the examples related to the productivity (Chand et al., 2020).


The equipment is used for the performance of the experiment with the Hydrology System where the equipment is allowing the constant flow of the water which is sprayed as a fine mist on the bed of sand. It is for the water which then flows out of tank and then there are runoff rates which are to be measured as well. The frame of the apparatus features about the adjusting feet to allow the frame levelling. Hence, there are pair of scissor jacks that are located with the tilted desired slope. Hence, the experiment schedule is for the standard drainage procedures which allows the proper giving amount of time which is the drying time. The methodology is based on the direct detection methodologies with the curvature vorticity parameters and the CSIRO Detection Schemes are for the handling of the no changes. The methods are related to the CCAM with 100% of the projections which are related to the tropical cyclone formations (Gibson et al., 2020). The Genesis Potential Index empirical techniques suggest the conditions with the tropical cyclone formation which is less favourable in the Pacific Ocean basin. There are moderate confidence in the range with the distribution of the possible features which are mainly because of the simulations for the current climate. The understanding is based on projected reduction of the total cyclone numbers with the proportions of the increased secure cyclones. The ocean acidification includes the increased factors with the driven factors on the ocean uptake by the carbon dioxide. There are projections related to the reaching of values and distribution of possible values. The impact of the change is on the health of the reef ecosystems which are also compounded by the other stressors. This also includes coral bleaching with storm damage and the fishing pressures (Gibson et al., 2020). The tropical cyclones tend to have a major impact

Statistical Tests


The geological perspectives are related to the alternative submergence with the entire island involved with the unavoidable history. There are resistance which is for the decision making and that to for minimising the future disruptions. The Pacific Island involves the effects of the future sea levels with the armouring by the beachroch and the other conglomerate in places. The life on atolls is generally more challenging with the few options that are related to the connection with the impending problems. There are lack of the high ground on the atoll islands which requires to focus on the activities and the coastal plains. The sea level rise threatens the existence for the coastal plains with the dwellers involved with the reallocation (Hens et al., 2018). The coastal towns are involved with experiencing the increased regular flooding which comes through handing the freshwaters with the facilitating of the shipping transport. The sea level factors involves the combination with the levels to drop relative to the sea surface which includes the flooding that has been exacerbated with the upland deforestation and the detrimental practices. There are combinations at the higher end level of the sea levels which comes with the coastal towns and the cities. The relocation involves the modern people with the permanent dwelling and surrounding about the infrastructure with the economic growth without fully acknowledging the seismic hazards of the area (Jayashinghe et al., 2019).

The understanding is based on the specific change of the climate with the focus on how the ownership of the climate change issues with the ensuring of viable and the long range plans. The plans are related to the climate change awareness which is mainstreamed with the knowledge pools of the countries. It involves the ensuring of the community level decision makers with the right tools to work on the informed decisions about the environmental management. The climate change factors includes the paying lip services to the global climate change agendas. It comes with the declining of the resources with meeting the different factors of the climate change decision making to the different communities. The understanding is based on the dramatic increase in the intensity and the frequency with high temperature extremes. The average of the maximum cyclone intensity includes the system of the coral reef with the extinction which would be seen to be catastrophic for the environment. The coral reefs are sensitive to the changes in the water. Hence, they might also stop growing with time (Kiwran et al., 2019). Here, WHO tend to identify the small island development with health impact of the climate changes. This is because of the changes with the vulnerability to temperature extremes. There are limitations on the ability to respond to the range shifts. The challenges tend to adapt with the threshold that push the social system into the complete abandoning with the facilitation of the adaptation collapse. The global projections are defined for the sophisticated approach which include the series of the atmospheric boxes with the changes that are related to the external forcing. It includes the projection which includes increase of the atmosphere greenhouse gas concentrations. Hence, there are general circulation models with use of the 3D grid with overlaying the earth surface. The burning of the fossil fuels, coal, oil and gas. This is considered with the additional 1.5 gigatons with the release into the atmosphere from the changes of land use. The concentrations are related to the tropical land use changes with increased concentration of the greenhouse gases with reduced efficiency of the earth surface that radiates to space. Hence, the results are related to the increased absorption for the infrared radiation by the atmosphere (Hereher, 2020).


The understanding is based on the disaster risks reduction and the climate change adaptation which has been involved with the relatively short time frames. The weak coordination includes the interventions with reduced vulnerability that requires the stronger political leadership with availability of accessible and user friendly data. The climate change factors includes the Pacific amount for the trust funds with the climate change that comes with the policy assistance with the Solomon Islands. The innovative schemes includes the regional risks pooling mechanism with the secured US$45 million of tsunami and tropical cyclones. There are insurances with the parameters that includes the streamlining of the disaster risks reduction and climate change adaptation in the key sectors. The development of the regional programs with the creation on the regional framework with resilient investment with disaster risks reduction and the early warning systems. The air temperature in the Solomon Islands which are closely links for the sea surface temperatures that includes the surface air temperature with the projection with continued increase of the sea surface temperature (Jennerjahn et al., 2017). The intensity and the frequency of the days are of the extreme heat with the projection of the increased high confidence. The Solomon Pacific Islands includes the range from the small low lying atolls to the large with the high peaks. The data includes the multiple observations with the primary section with the average sea level data that comes with the vertical land motions. The seasonal cycles includes the forms with the air temperature with the weak seasonal variations. The climate features influence the rainfall of the Solomon islands with the 70% of the yearly total rainfall. The feeds moisture includes the active wet season which comes with more constant rainfall between 280 mm and 420mm per month. The observed trends are for the air temperatures which includes the warming trends that are evident in annual and seasonal mean air temperatures. It includes the forms with the Solomon Islands with the tropical cyclones which are related to the average of 10 cyclones per decade. The interannual variability includes the season with the high variation on the identification of long term trends. The flooding and the wind damage and handling the sea surface temperature gridded datasets. The ocean acidification includes the large scale distribution for the coral reefs for the Pacific and seawater chemistry that comes with the optimised coral growth and the development of the healthy reef ecosystems. The extreme sea level events includes the changes and the variations with handling the climate projections. The understanding is based on projections with temperature and sea surface for the close agreement which is modelled and observed with temperature trends that are set through handling the interannual variability with air temperature and sea surface temperature (osland et al., 2016). The extremes and rainfall are related to the CMIP3 models with simulating the little change that comes with capturing the influence of the Pacific Monsoon. There are factors related to the majority of the models simulating the increased temperature by 1 degree Celsius. The drought is projected on the decrease with the moderate confidence with the direction of change. The decrease is in drought which is consistent projections for the increased rainfall. The ocean acidification includes the projection to decline on the south west Pacific Ocean basin where there are moderate confidence that includes the studies about the tropical cyclone numbers with handling the different majority assessment techniques. The projected reductions in the total cyclone numbers includes the CCAM 60km projections with the models that include the reduction in the sea levels. It is based on projection to continue to rise over 21st centre. The sea level rise is the consistent response to increase ocean and the atmospheric temperature which is for the thermal expansion of water. The models tend to simulate the rise of the sea level with the moderate confidence with the uncertainties of the ice sheet contributions for the sea level rise. It comes with understanding the processes which is currently limited to provide the best estimate with upper bound. The sea level has been rising with the focus on the studies related to the use of the semi-empirical models. The projection of the faster rates includes the sea level raise and then handling the interannual variability after the removal of the seasonal signals (Tiareti et al., 2019). The regional variations are in the sea level which is associated to the ocean and the mass changes. The associated changes are for the surface loading with local tectonic motions.


The history includes the sea level change with the habitability of islands with the effects related to the pervasive forms on the island regions. The sea level fall in the past few years that tend to allow the tropical island coasts with handling the nearshore reef lagoon environment. The sea level fall includes the leading on the atoll islands to forms with sensitivity analysis with the sea level on the projection with the foreseeable future on the island coasts. The experiencing erosion and more frequent flooding includes the threatening of the livelihood sustainability (Wairlu, 2017). The Pacific Radical change includes the geographical change with the settlement patterns and communication with the breakdown that comes with the fabric of the societies. The changes are defined on the coastal settlements with the relocation which is found with the land in the less vulnerable locations with the livelihood development on the mapping with the particular communities. The societies are informed about the future and the possible information with empowering to act with person who works on the scientific information and the stakeholders who are empowered to act and work on the persons of influence. The understanding is based on the impact of acidification change for the health of the reef ecosystems which is likely to be compounded by the other stressors with coral bleaching, storm damage and the fishing pressure. The emphasis is on the rehabilitation and the maintenance of the water catchment with the distribution systems that includes the efforts to fortify the infrastructure and then handling the violent storms. The attention needs to be place for the controlling leaks with the loss of the freshwater resources in some of the delivery systems. The precipitation changes tend to likely visit the changes with the substantial increase in the rainfall with the increased rainfall which is likely to be resulting in the substantial increase of flooding. It includes the reduction of the portable water supplies and the threatening crops which are grown in the coastal regions. The climate changes are related to the associated to the massive decrease of the rainfall for the Pacific western portion. The reduced freshwater supplies are for the Marshall Islands with the rainwater which is the primary source of supply.


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