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Retaining our Volunteers:
Report for Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving
Club

Photo source:
Currumbin SLSC

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.TITLE PAGE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2
2.TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………3
3.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………………………….5
4.INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT …………………………………………………………………6
4.1 SURF LIFESAVING AUSTRALIA: BACKGROUND AND KEY FACTS 7
4.2 CLUB BACKGROUND 7
4.3 THE PROBLEM OF RETENTION 8
5.THEORETICAL BACKGROUND………………………………………………………………………………………9
5.1 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND THE IMPORTANCE OF VOLUNTEER RETENTION 9
5.2 VOLUNTEER MOTIVATION INDEX 10
5.3 LEADER MEMBER EXCHANGE 11
5.4 AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT 12
5.5 INTENTION TO TURNOVER 13
5.6 SURF LIFE SAVING SPECIFIC MOTIVATION 14
6.METHOD ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….15
6.1 TYPE OF STUDY 15
6.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD 15
6.3 MEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES 15
6.4 SAMPLE 16
6.5 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 16
6.6 ETHICAL ISSUES AND CONCERNS 17
6.7 LIMITATIONS 17
7.FINDINGS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18
7.1 WHO ARE OUR MOST COMMITTED VOLUNTEERS? 18
7.2 FACTORS CORRELATED WITH VOLUNTEER COMMITMENT 19
7.3 WHAT ARE THE FACTORS MOTIVATING OUR VOLUNTEERS? 20
7.4 HOW IMPORTANT ARE THESE FACTORS BY GENDER? 21
7.5 HOW IMPORTANT ARE THESE FACTORS BY AGE GROUPS? 22
7.6 WHO IS GIVING OUR ORGANISATION THE MOST AMOUNT OF TIME? 23
7.7 WHAT ARE OUR PATROL CAPTAINS CONTRIBUTING TO OUR VOLUNTEERS? 24
7.8 WHAT FACTORS ARE NOT CONSISTENTLY IMPORTANT FOR OUR VOLUNTEERS? 25
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8.CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………………………………….26
8.1 VOLUNTEER MOTIVATION AND COMMITMENT 26
8.2 MOTIVATING AND RETAINING DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS 28
8.3 LEADER MEMBER EXCHANGE- THE ROLE OF PATROL CAPTAINS IN VOLUNTEER RETENTION 31
8.4 REWARDING CURRUMBINS TOP SERVING VOLUNTEERS 33
8.5 HOW OUR VOLUNTEERS COMPARE WITH OTHER AUSTRALIAN GROUPS 33
9.REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..34
10.APPENDIX ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………36
APPENDIX 10.1 VFI SURVEY QUESTIONS 36
APPENDIX 10.2 LEADER MEMBER EXCHANGE SURVEY QUESTIONS 37
APPENDIX 10.3 AFFFECTIVE COMMITMENT SURVEY QUESTIONS 38
APPENDIX 10.4 INTENTION TO TURNOVER SURVEY QUESTIONS 39
APPENDIX 10.5 SURF LIFE SAVING MOTIVATION SURVEY QUESTIONS 40
APPENDIX 10.6 LEADER MEMBER EXCHANGE FACTOR ANALYSIS 41
APPENDIX 10.7 SURF LIFE SAVING MOTIVATION FACTOR ANALYSIS 42
APPENDIX 10.8 CAREER/SOCIAL VFI FACTOR ANALYSIS 43
APPENDIX 10.9 VALUES VFI FACTOR ANALYSIS 44
APPENDIX 10.10 PROTECTIVE VFI FACTOR ANALYSIS 45
APPENDIX 10.11 UNDERSTANDING/ENHANCEMENT FACTOR ANALYSIS 46
APPENDIX 10.12 INTENTION TO TURNOVER FACTOR ANALYSIS 47
APPENDIX 10.13 AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT FACTOR ANALYSIS 48
APPENDIX 10.14 VFI/SURF LIFESAVING MOTIVATION ROTACTED FACTOR MATRIX 49
APPENDIX 10.15 PEARSON CORRELATION CHART 50
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3. 3.1
The retention of volunteers at the Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving Club, an affiliated club of Surf
Lifesaving Australia, has been identified as a major strategic challenge by club management. This challenge
has arisen over the past three years as a result of a significant reduction in the number of retained
volunteers which has continued to increase over the past two seasons.
The Club relies heavily on volunteers to conduct its operations with volunteers contributing close to seven
thousand hours each season on the beach. The cost to train each new volunteer is estimated to be at close
to five hundred dollars including training resources, equipment provisions and member induction costs.
Due to the large cost of training new volunteers and the time requirements needed to orientate and
integrate new members into the system, the retention of existing volunteers is viewed as essential to the
long term survival and improved performance of the organisation and hence it is the focus of this study.
Retention in an organisation can be measured in a number of ways. This report takes a strategic human
resource management approach and measures retention with reference to Intention to turnover and
affective commitment. The report examines the volunteer motivation of Currumbin Beach Viking Surf Life
Saving volunteers using six previously validated volunteer motivational measures including protective
motives (a way of protecting the ego from the difficulties of life), values motives (a way to express ones
altruistic and humanitarian values), career motives (a way to improve career prospects), social motives (a
way to develop and strengthen social ties), understanding motives (a way to gain knowledge, skills and
abilities) and enhancement motives (a way to help the ego grow and develop). An additional motive known
as surf lifesaving specific motivation (competition) was also used as a measure given its significance and
importance in the surf lifesaving movement and environment.
Complimentary motivational factors, such as the role of patrol leaders on volunteer motivation, and the
impact of volunteer motivation on the levels commitment and intention to leave of our volunteers is also
examined.
The findings of the report are based off results from a randomly distributed, online survey which was
completed by eighty five Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving Club volunteers. The survey required
respondents to rank the factors that influence their motivation to volunteers, as well as their levels of
commitment and intention to leave their volunteer role in the future.
The key findings from the survey indicate that:
1) The vast majority of sampled volunteers appear to have high levels of affective commitment towards
their volunteer role. All respondents indicated that they had an average or above level of commitment to
the organisation.
2) On average, the thirty five and over age group possessed the highest levels of commitment towards the
organisation.
3) Volunteers committed to Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving Club out of a sense of personal values
and social interaction. Values such as altruism, empathy and charity predict roughly twenty five per cent of
volunteer’s commitment. As a response, the statistical analysis suggests that we can enhance volunteer’s
level of commitment by increasing their motivation to give to the community.
4) The eighteen to twenty five year old group of Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving Club volunteers
perceive competition and career experience as central to their volunteering practice. In contrast, there is a
slight indication that the forty five and over age group is volunteering as a result of the altruistic values they
possess.

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5) Volunteers who are aged between eighteen and twenty four contribute generally contribute between
one and four hours per week, or between nine and twelve hours per week. It is our thirty five and over
cohort who are contributing the most amount of volunteer hours in our organisation. As a result, we need
to find ways to ensure that our core group are adequately recognised and rewarded.
6) There appears to be a link between the relationship that our volunteers have with their patrol captain,
the motivation to be an ‘understanding and considerate’ volunteer. This suggests that patrol captains have
a significant role in promoting a culture of volunteer community service as part of their role.
7) Volunteers in other community organisations often volunteer out of a sense of personal mental health
and to contribute to community mental health. In contrast, our Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving
Club volunteers are motivated mostly out of a ‘sense of club’, in that they strongly believe in the Vikings
mission. Other factors include career progression (particularly our younger members), a sense of
community, and opportunities to develop their competitiveness within the lifesaving competition arena.
It is recommended from the findings that the organisation can increase retention rates of volunteers by:
x Capitalising on the social motivations of volunteers by aligning club structures, systems and programs
with their social based experience and motives to increase retention levels
x Capitalising on the altruistic motivations of volunteers by aligning club structures, systems and
programs with their values based experience and motives to increase retention levels
x Promoting competition and career factors to volunteers between the ages of eighteen and twenty four.
This would include initiatives such as enhancing the club competition framework, providing additional
training and competition experiences to members, assist with networking opportunities to allow
members to make new business contacts and implement systems and pathways for members to
develop skills and benefits for career progression.
x Promoting understanding and enhancement factors to volunteers aged between twenty five and forty
four such as the opportunity to gain a new perspective through volunteerism, providing opportunities
for members to learn and increase knowledge through hands on experience and by Providing training
and avenues for members to learn how to deal with a variety of people.
x Promoting values and social factors to volunteers aged forty five years and above such as publicising
achievements by these members in community service, promoting opportunities to serve the
community, providing experiences and programs that will allow this age demographic to give back to
the community and implementing social activities that will engage this group and increase social
interaction.
x Implementing strategies to enhance the service and communication between patrol captains and
volunteer lifesavers including patrol captain workshops designed to increase communication and
leadership skills, patrol captain resources designed to support patrol captains in their roles as leaders of
our volunteers and Providing ongoing training and support and personal development opportunities to
develop their skills as leaders in the club.
x Rewarding top serving volunteers with initiatives such as membership discounts, free meals in the clubs
licensed premises, and recognition of their achievements in forums such as club newsletters, volunteer
of the month awards and volunteer thank you days.

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INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT 4.
SURF LIFESAVING IN AUSTRALIA: BACKGROUND AND KEY FACTS 4.1
Surf lifesaving is an integral part of the Australian social fabric in a sporting, volunteering and cultural
context (Veal, Darcy, & Lynch, 2013). With 168,622 members and three hundred and eleven affiliated Surf
Life Saving Clubs and over 1,200,000 volunteer patrol hours last lifesaving season.
Surf Life Saving is not only an integral part of the Australian cultural identity, but also a huge economic
factor representing the largest volunteer movement of its kind in Australia and the world (Surf Life Saving
Australia, 2014). In an economic contribution report conducted by PriceWaterhouseCoopers (2011), the
total estimated economic value of Surf Life Saving’s coastal drowning and injury prevention efforts to
Australia was $3.6 billion with members aged forty to forty nine years commit the largest amount of time
to volunteering services, contributing thirty eight per cent of total monthly volunteering hours, whilst
making up thirty six per cent of total membership
.
The report further found that up to fifty per cent of members typically volunteer between three and ten
hours per week during the season and approximately eighty two per cent of all members aged over sixteen
years actively competed in Surf Club events around Australia in competitions designed to maintain their
skills and fitness (PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2011).
CLUB BACKGOUND 4.2
Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving Club Inc. was established in 1919 to provide essential lifesaving
services for members of the public between Flat Rock, Tugun and Currumbin Alley on the Southern Gold
Coast. In the 2014/2015 Lifesaving season the Club has one thousand and seventy four registered
volunteers including three hundred and seventy two proficient award holding lifesavers that patrol the
beach voluntarily between September and May each season. On average each member is asked to
contribute an average of twenty five volunteer hours per season to the Club.
Photo source: Currumbin SLSC
Surf Life Saving (SLS) is Australia’s
major water safety and rescue
authority and is one of the largest
groups of volunteer organisations in
the country.
The findings from Hall and Innes
(2008) forewarn of the need to
understand the motivation which is
driving and retaining individuals in
volunteering roles in surf lifesaving.

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THE PROBLEM OF RETENTION 4.2
Retention of volunteers at the Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving Club, an affiliated club of Surf
Lifesaving Australia, has been identified as a problem area by Club Management due to a reduction in the
number of volunteers retained over the past three seasons. Whilst overall membership has continued to
grow during this time period due to increasing numbers of new memberships the decreasing retention level
figures are alarming for the club management committee.
In the 2013/2014 season the Clubs active volunteer retention levels were identified as being seven per cent
down on the previous season’s figures. To date during the 2014/2015 season the Clubs active volunteer
retention levels have further decreased to a nine per cent drop off continuing an alarming trend with
regards to volunteer retention

in this particular not for profit organisation (Currumbin SLSC, 2014)
9%The Drop in retention levels at
Currumbin Surf Life Saving Club at the
start of the 2014/2015 season

.
The Club relies heavily on volunteers to conduct its operations with volunteers contributing close to seven
thousand hours each season on the beach. The cost to train each new volunteer is estimated to be at close
to five hundred dollars per volunteer including training resources, equipment provisions and member
induction costs. Due to the large cost of training new volunteers and the time requirements needed to
orientate and integrate new members into the system, the retention of existing volunteers is viewed as
essential to the long term survival and improved performance of the organisation and hence it is the focus
of this study.
$500- The cost to train, induct and
integrate a new volunteer into the
system at Currumbin SLSC
7000hrsThe approximate number of
volunteer hours contributed by
volunteers at Currumbin SLSC each
season
$25,000The estimated cost to train,
educate and induct 50 new volunteer
members in 2014/2015

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THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 5.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND THE IMPORTANCE OF VOLUNTEER RETENTION 5.1
A volunteer is described as a person who does not receive monetary payment for their work (Pearce 1993).
The ABS defines a volunteer as ‘someone who willingly gave unpaid help in the form of time, service or
skills through an organisation or group’ (ABS 2007,p. 3).
Human resources (HR) are the backbone of an organisation (Gerhart & Milkovich, 1990). Building and
sustaining a committed workforce is more likely to be facilitated by the employment of sophisticated
human resource management (HRM) infrastructures (Schuler & Jackson, 1987).
Existing research, however, has almost exclusively focused on the HRM of employees working in large forprofit organisations and the public sector, with non-profit and volunteer- dependant
organisations
receiving scant attention (Cuskelly et al. 2006).
In a review of HRM and organisational behaviour (OB) research in sport, Doherty (1998) reported, only five
per cent of the OB research examined the attitudes of volunteers. Currently we know little about the
adoption and effectiveness of HRM and retention for human capital in a volunteering context.
Photo source: Currumbin SLSC
This research project examines the efficacy of Strategic HRM practices and their effect on volunteer
retention in Surf Lifesaving, specifically volunteers at Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving Club. This
report therefore aims to find out what the club and its management can do to retain volunteers.

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VOLUNTEER MOTIVATION 5.2
WHAT IS IT?
Volunteers are not primarily driven by financial gain, so financial reward is no incentive. In order to retain
volunteers we need to understand their prime motives for volunteering in the first place and continuing
their volunteer experience. People maintain their voluntary behaviour provided they fulfil one or more of
the six individualist functions including protective Motives, Values, Career, Social, Understanding and
Enhancement factors (Clary et al. 1998). The definitions of these factors are summarised below;

Protective Motives a way of protecting the ego from the difficulties of life
Values a way to express ones altruistic and humanitarian values.
Career a way to improve career prospects.
Social a way to develop and strengthen social ties.
Understanding a way to gain knowledge, skills, and abilities.
Enhancement a way to help the ego grow and develop.

Figure 1: Overview of VFI motivations
The results of Clary et al.’s (1998) study have culminated in the development of a scale used to measure
volunteer motivation (VFI). The VFI is viewed as a useful measurement of volunteerism and helping the
administrators of voluntary organisations to manage human resources (Misje et al. 2005) and will therefore
also be used to collect data for this research report. More details on the index and its application in the
context of Currumbin Vikings SLSC can be found in Appendix 1
WHAT HAS BEEN FOUND ABOUT IT?
The VFI has been employed in a number of relevant studies. It has been found that the value factor ranked
highest as the main motivational factor for volunteers in WA, whilst social, protective and career
development factors were of least importance. (Esmond & Dunlop, 2004).
In contrast, volunteers working in a regional art gallery were primarily driven by understanding, values and
enhancement factors (Anderson & Cairncross, 2005). Similarly the primary motive for volunteers working at
a regional visitors information was the understanding factor closely followed by values and enhancement
factors. It became clear that an important motivator for these volunteers was to show their humanitarian
side to help other less fortunate than themselves (Anderson & Cairncross, 2005).
WHY IS IT RELEVANT TO THIS STUDY?
Researchers have found that when the volunteer experience matched their primary motivation for helping,
individuals reported greater satisfaction and stronger intentions to continue (Clary & Snyder, 1991).
Individuals will be more effective in the assigned duties and satisfied with the experience if volunteer
motives are satisfied (Clary & Snyder, 1991). If an organisation is successful in aligning the benefits from the
experience to the individual’s initial motivation, volunteers tend to offer their services again in the future
leading to greater retention (Clary et al. 1998).
Results from the VFI, will help identify key motivational factors
for volunteers at Currumbin SLSC. The Club can then align their
volunteering experience with these factors to ensure volunteer
satisfaction and in turn increased retention.

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LEADER MEMBER EXCHANGE 5.3
WHAT IS IT?
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) developed by Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995) is a subset of social exchange
theory, and describes how leaders develop different exchange relationships over time with various
subordinates of the same group (Hassan & Chandaran, 2005). The relationship exchange is viewed as the
quality and effect of the relationship between the leader and the follower. In our study the patrol captain is
viewed as the leader and the volunteer as the member.
The results of the Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995) study have culminated in the development of a scale used to
measure Leader Member Exchange (LMX). The LMX is viewed as a useful measurement of the relationship
between leaders and subordinates and will therefore also be used to collect data for this research report.
More details on the index and its application in the context of Currumbin Vikings SLSC can be found in
Appendix 2.
WHAT HAS BEEN FOUND ABOUT IT?
LMX has been employed in a number of relevant studies. When researching LMX in a nursing and
engineering context found that both engineers and nurses were similarly negatively affected by supervisorsubordinate relationships as both groups were only somewhat satisfied (Farr Wharton, Brunetto &
Sharlock, 2011).
Similarly in a previous study on nurses the theory and hypothesis of LMX was strongly supported,
demonstrating a positive relationship between nurses satisfaction with their superior-subordinate
relationship and their intentions to continue nursing (Shacklock & Brunetto, 2012).
WHY IS IT RELEVANT TO THIS STUDY?
According to the LMX theory, a leader treats subordinates differently based on the quality of the dyadic
relationship. A good quality relationship has been found to promote stronger organisational commitment
(Nystrom, 1990) and lower turnover intentions (Vecchio & Gobdel, 1984). Managers who experience lowquality exchanges with their bosses tend to feel little organisational commitment, whereas managers with
high-quality exchanges express strong organisational commitment (Nystrom, 1990).
Photo source: Currumbin SLSC
Results from the Leader Member Exchange Survey will examine the role of the
volunteer leaders (Patrol Captains) and their effect on volunteers Intention to
Turnover and Affective Commitment at Currumbin SLSC. The Organisation can
then use these results to implement strategies involving patrol captains and
volunteer relationships to increase retention levels in the Club.

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AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT 5.4
WHAT IS IT?
Affective commitment, developed by Meyer and Allen (1997), measures an employee’s emotional
attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organisation. Somers (1995) found that affective
commitment along with normative commitment correlated positively with turnover. Affective commitment
is seen as a desire to continue in an organisation whilst normative commitment is viewed as an obligation
to continue in an organisation (Meyer & Allen, 1991).
The results from the work of Meyer and Allen (1997) have culminated in the development of a scale used to
measure Affective Commitment (AC). AC is viewed as a useful measurement of a volunteers commitment
to an organisation and will therefore also be used to collect data for this research report. More details on
the index and its application in the context of Currumbin Vikings SLSC can be found in Appendix 3.
WHAT HAS BEEN FOUND ABOUT IT?
AC has been employed in a number of relevant studies. Boezeman and Ellemers (2008) examined
organisational commitment as a focal indicator of work motivation among volunteers finding that pride and
respect are directly and positively associated with organisational commitment among volunteer workers.
When examining the commitment and satisfaction of lower-ranked police officers Brunetto and Wharton
(2003) found that police officers will feel most committed when they are involved in decision making are
supported by superiors and receive adequate feedback about task, performance and expectations
It has also been found in the Nursing sector that senior management can influence commitment levels to
an organisation by changing the quality of communication and work processes embedded in the workplace
(Shacklock & Brunetto, 2012).
WHY IS IT RELEVANT TO THIS STUDY?
Employees who are strongly committed are those who are least likely to leave the organisation (Allen &
Meyer, 1990).
Photo source: Currumbin SLSC
Results from the Affective Commitment Survey will show how committed
volunteers are to the organisation. The results will also indicate which age
groups are most committed and what motivational factors are pivotal in
retaining their commitment to Currumbin SLSC. The organisation can then
use this information to align the motivational factors to each age group
and assist with increasing retention levels.

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INTENTION TO TURNOVER 5.5
WHAT IS IT?
Intention to turnover, developed by Meyer, Allen & Smith (1993), measures the willingness of employees to
leave the company for another job and their intention to begin searching for a new job.
The results from the work of Meyer, Allen & Smith (1993) have culminated in the development of a scale
used to measure Intention to Turnover (ITT) ITT is viewed as a useful measurement of a volunteers
intention to leave an organisation and will therefore also be used to collect data for this research report.
More details on the index and its application in the context of Currumbin Vikings SLSC can be found in
Appendix 4.
WHAT HAS BEEN FOUND ABOUT IT?
ITT has been employed in a number of relevant studies. It has been found in the policing industry that as
officers wellbeing increased so did their job satisfaction, engagement and organisational commitment
leading to lower levels of turnover intention (Brunetto, Teo, Shacklock & Farr‐Wharton, 2012)
Previous studies have demonstrated that volunteer motivational factors have direct relevance to volunteer
commitment and that motivation and commitment had an influence on intentions to continue volunteering
(Bang and Kim, 2009). Similarly research has found that when the needs of individuals goals are fulfilled
through volunteering, those individuals tend to volunteer more than those individuals whose needs are not
satisfied (Clary et al. 1998).
WHY IS IT RELEVANT TO THIS STUDY?
Highlighting turnover intention as a key element in the modelling of turnover behaviour, scholars have
determined that behavioural intentions are the single best predictor of turnover. Intention to turnover has
been found to be the most predictive variable of actual turnover in firms (Hom et al. 1992)
Bang and Kim (2009) found that volunteers who were highly motivated by community involvement
were more likely to continue volunteering and that the opportunity to express a pride and love for
the community would be more relevant to the individual than extrinsic rewards
Results from the Intention to Turnover Survey will show how likely it is that the
organisation will retain its volunteers in the future. The results will also indicate
what key motivational factors (Extrinsic or Intrinsic) are important to the
organisations most committed individuals. The Club will then be able to analyse
which motivational factors are most important to its most committed individuals
and align their strategies in the future to these key factors to assist with retaining
its members.

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SURF LIFESAVING SPECIFIC MOTIVATION 5.6
WHAT IS IT?
Noting the difference between traditional measures and the context of the environment an additional scale
has been implemented for this research project. This will be known as Surf Life Saving Motivation
(Competition). Four questions have been custom designed by the researcher and will also be used to collect
data for this research report. More details on the index and its application in the context of Currumbin
Vikings SLSC can be found in Appendix 5.
WHAT HAS BEEN FOUND ABOUT IT?
Previous studies analysing the motivation of Australian volunteer lifesavers found that volunteers regarded
competition as an important part of the motivation and the reasons why they remain a surf lifesaver (Hall &
Innes, 2008). An economic contribution report by PricewaterhouseCoopers (2011), found that eighty two
per cent of all members over sixteen years actively competed in surf club events around Australia. Specific
to Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving Club Inc. it is estimated that of its current three hundred and
fifty seven proficient lifesavers, approximately one hundred and thirty members participate in state and
national surf sport competitions.
WHY IS IT RELEVANT TO THIS STUDY?
Photo source: Currumbin SLSC
Surf Sport Competition has been identified as an important factor by members volunteering in
Surf Lifesaving. The Surf Lifesaving Specific measure will be used to measure how important
this aspect of the organisation is important in motivating and hence retaining volunteers
across different age groups.

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METHOD 6.
TYPE OF STUDY 6.1
This report is based on a fourty eight question online survey constructed using the online survey instrument
Questionpro. Throughout the survey members were asked about their motivations to volunteer as a
lifesaver for Currumbin SLSC and answer questions with regards to their future commitment and any
intentions to leave the Club in the near future.
DATA COLLECTION METHOD 6.2
Online surveys were be sent to an online database of three hundred and fifty active volunteer lifesaving
members of Currumbin SLSC through questionpro on the 25
th November 2014. Volunteers were asked to
respond to the questionnaire as soon as possible and within a ten day timeframe.
To maximise the response rate and ensure a quality sample for a multivariate analysis, direct face to face
surveys were conducted over a seven day period with members using an Ipad to collect data and enable
direct data entry into the questionpro database.
MEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES 6.3
This report is based on a 48 point scale survey which was used to measure six aspects most relevant and
pertaining to retention of volunteers at Currumbin SLSC. All measures are reliable and valid and are based
on preexisting scales which are mentioned earlier in this report and shown below. As highlighted earlier in
the report, each of the measures and variables have been previously utilised by researchers in an Australian
Context.
The survey will measure volunteer motivation using the
thirty point VFI scale developed by Clary, Snyder,
Ridge, Copeland, Stukas, Haugen and Miene in 1998
Affective commitment will be measured using a
six point Affective Commitment (AC)scale from Meyer and
Allen (1997).
Intention to Turnover will be measured using the
three point Intentions to Turnover (ITT) scale from
Meyer, Allen, & Smith, (1993).
Leader-member-exchange will be measured using the
eight point LMX Scale from Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995).
Noting differences between traditional measures and the context of the surf life saving specific
environment an
additional scale will be implemented to measure surf lifesaving specific motivations of
volunteers
with regards to motivation to compete in Surf Life Saving competitions. These factors have
resulted in an additional four factors that will be measured using a five point scale) in addition to the above
noted VFI, AC, ITT and LMX scales.

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SAMPLE 6.4
Data was collected from volunteer members of Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving Club Inc. Surveys
were sent to members directly from the Club membership database. To achieve the standard distribution
necessary to conduct a multivariate analysis, data was collected from ninety volunteer members.
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 6.5
Once the data was collected, quantitative data analysis was conducted to determine the findings relative to
the questions posed in the original research findings and in comparison to previous research findings in this
area.
Initially a missing values analysis was undertaken whereby, if an item has less than ten per cent missing and
the data appears to be at random, the mean is substituted (Field, 2013). In our research study, of the
remaining eighty five responses no item had less than three per cent missing data (most items had no
missing data). The mean was substituted for items that had missing data.
The second step in the analysis was to conduct a normality check, keeping in mind that quantitative
analysis usually requires data to be normally distributed, a check was conducted to ensure that a skewness
and kurtosis score of between +2 and -2 was present for each item. Once this step was conducted five
outliers were identified outside of the nominal range. To deal with this, using windsorsizing, outliers were
moved to the closest acceptable range within the normal distribution (Field, 2013).
Following the normality check, a statistical test was employed to examine the degree to which respondents
answered the sets of questions representing a construct in the same way. If questions were answered
similarly then the construct was considered to be of good statistical representation. Principal component
factoring with varimax rotation was utilised to cut off correlations between items that were below .5.
Cronbach’s alpha reliability was also employed to ensure that items derived from the principal component
factoring held a reliability score of above 0.7, indicating an acceptable reliability for the purpose of the
study (Hinkin, 1998). Several items were removed through factor analysis. A report of the questions and
their factor loadings is available in the results section. It must also be noted that the small sample size also
reduced the Intention to Turnover scale to 2 items.
Our factor analysis indicated that a number of items have statistical reliability in forming a construct. These
items were averaged to develop a variable representing the construct.
A correlation analysis was undertaken to demonstrate the degree to which the distributions of the
variables were significantly linked. The results of these correlations can be seen in the findings section.

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ETHICAL ISSUES AND CONCERNS 6.6
The research study needed to ensure the confidentiality and voluntary participation of respondents. As a
high number of volunteers at the club are aged eighteen years and under, this was kept in mind as a
consideration when approaching the sample respondents. Due to ethical considerations, data was not
collected from these members throughout the research project.
LIMITATIONS 6.7
The author acknowledges that there are limitations associated with this research that need to be noted.
Firstly, the research involved volunteers in completing the VFI to self report. This self reporting required
volunteer willingness to complete the VFI and to candidly respond to the statements contained in the
survey. It is not inconceivable that respondents may have based their answers on what their organisation
and the authors wanted to hear.
Secondly, the research is confined to volunteers at Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving Club. Although
a large sample of membership was involved, there is no assurance that the results will translate effectively
to other clubs undertaking the study.

Page | 18
FINDINGS 7.
WHO ARE OUR MOST COMMITTED VOLUNTEERS? 7.1
The far majority of sampled volunteers appear to have high levels of affective commitment towards their
volunteer role. The following table (see figure 2 below) shows the distribution of affective commitment for
all respondents. All respondents indicated that they had an average or above level of commitment to our
organisation.
Figure 2: Affective Commitment survey results
On average, our 35+ year old possess even higher levels of commitment to our organisation, as can be seen
in the following graph. Members aged in the 55-64 age group bracket appear to be the most committed to
the organisation with Affective Commitment levels up around 95% whilst members members aged 18-24,
25-34 and 64+ age brackets have slightly lower Affective Commitment levels closer to the 85% benchmark
(see figure 3 below).
Figure 3: Affective Commitment levels by age group
Page | 19
FACTORS CORRELATED WITH VOLUNTEER COMMITMENT 7.2
People commit to our organisation out of a sense of personal values and social interaction. Values such as
altruism, empathy and charity predict roughly 25% of our volunteer’s commitment.
As shown below (figure 4) there was a significant relationship found between Volunteer Vales and an
individuals affective commitment to the organisation.
As part of the research the relationships between affective commitment and the factors of competition,
career, understanding/enhancement and protective were also examined however there wasn’t a significant
link discovered between these factors and the individuals affective commitment to the organisation as
shown in the diagram below. A full table of these results and the correlations can be viewed in Appendix
14.
Figure 4: Affective Commitment and motivation factors correlation
P *= <.05
Affective
Commitment
Volunteer Values
& Social
.230*
Competition
Understanding &
Enhancement
Protective
Career

Page | 20
WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT FACTORS MOTIVATING OUR VOLUNTEERS? 7.3
The pie chart below (see figure 5) indicates that the reasons why our volunteers undertake service are fairly
equal in priority, with values (a way to express ones altruistic and humanitarian values) and Social
Interaction (a way to strengthen ones social ties) as well as understanding (a way to gain knowledge, skills
and abilities) and enhancement (a way to help the ego grow and develop) possessing slightly higher mean
scores (3.8 and 3.9 respectively). Despite these two factors scoring slightly higher competition (surf sports)
and career experience (a way to enhance career prospects) were also viewed as highly important factors
motivating volunteers.
Figure 5: Factors motivating volunteers
Page | 21
HOW IMPORTANT ARE THESE FACTORS BY GENDER? 7.4
Figure 6: Motivational factors by gender
Females placed the highest importance on understanding and enhancement with the lowest importance on
competition whilst Males placed values and social interaction as their highest factor, whilst similarly to
Females competition was placed as the lowest factor (see above figure 6).
Very little differences in the motivations can be perceived in the motivations of our volunteers when we
separate the mean scores by gender, however we note that when the age group of respondents is factored
in some differences appear.

Page | 22
HOW IMPORTANT ARE THESE FACTORS BY AGE GROUPS? 7.5
Figure 7: Motivational factors by age group
The graph above (see figure 7) indicates that our 18-24 year old group of volunteers perceive competition
and career experience as central to their volunteering practice. In contrast, there is a slight indication the
our 45+ year olds are volunteering as a result of the altruistic
values they possess.
Members in the 25-34 and 35-44 age brackets perceived understanding and enhancement as their primary
reason for their volunteer motivation.
Respondents aged 45-54 and 55-64 perceived values and social interaction as their key motivational factor
for volunteering.

Page | 23
WHO IS GIVING OUR ORGANISATION THE MOST AMOUNT OF TIME? 7.6
Figure 8: Time contribution by volunteers
This chart (see figure 8) indicates that our volunteers who are aged between 18-24 contribute generally
give contribute either 1-4hrs per week, or 9-12 hours per week. It is our 35+ cohort who are contributing
more the most amount of volunteer hours in our organisation.

Page | 24
WHAT ARE OUR PATROL CAPTAINS CONTRIBUTING TO OUR VOLUNTEERS MOTIVATION? 7.7
The correlation analysis (see figure 9 below) indicates that LMX and volunteer understanding are linked.
This suggests that our group captains have a significant role in promoting a culture of volunteer
understanding (a way to gain knowledge, skills and abilities) and enhancement (a way to help the ego grow
and develop) as part of their role.
Figure 9: Volunteer Understanding and LMX correlation
P *= <.05
LMX
Volunteer
Understanding
anand
enhancesment
.223*

Page | 25
WHAT FACTORS ARE NOT CONSISTENTLY IMPORTANT FOR OUR VOLUNTEERS? 7.8
A review of these findings from the factor analysis demonstrates some significant findings with regards to
Leader Member Exchange, Surf Live Saving Specific Motivation and the six items measured on the VFI scale.
The original Analysis measured thirty items established previously on the VFI Scale, eight Items on the
Leader Member Exchange Scale and four items on the Competition scale. However once the factor analysis
relevant to our scale was established only twenty of these original fourty one factors remained (see figure
10 below). These remaining factors that were established as consistent in our study can be seen in
Appendix 6.

MOTIVATIONAL FACTOR Number of Items Established in
our Scale:
Full Results Shown in:
Leaders Member Exchange 7/8 Appendix 6
Competition 4/4 Appendix 7
Career 4/5 Appendix 8
Values 3/5 Appendix 9
Protective 0/5 Appendix 10
Enhancement 0/5 Appendix 11
Understanding 1/5 Appendix 11
Social 2/5 Appendix 8

Figure 10: Motivational factor establishment

RETENTION MEASURE Number of Items Established in
our Scale:
Full Results Shown in:
Intention to Turnover 2/3 Appendix 12
Affective Commitment 5/6 Appendix 13

Figure 11: Retention measure establishment
A Full summary of the remaining VFI and Competition Items can be viewed in the table in Appendix 14.
Page | 26
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 8.
VOLUNTEER MOTIVATION & COMMITMENT 8.1
The results from the study show that the far majority of sampled volunteers appear to have high levels of
affective commitment towards the organisation with the majority of the volunteers identifying altruistic
reasons as their primary motive for being involved in the organisation. People commit to the organisation
out of a sense of personal values and social interaction. Values such as altruism, empathy and charity
predict roughly 25% of volunteer commitment. This is consistent with previous findings from surf lifesaving
research (Hall and Innes) as well as findings from Western Australian Volunteers (Esmond & Dunlop 2004)
and volunteer university students (Blanchard, Rostant and Finn 1995)
Our findings showed a lack of a significant link between the members affective commitment and the other
motivational factors including competition, career, understanding and enhancement and protective
motives. These findings are in contrast with studies that have found understanding and enhancement
factors to be primary motives for individual volunteerism including studies of volunteers at a regional
visitors information centre (Anderson and Cairncross 2005) and regional art gallery (Anderson and
Cairncross 2005).
Organisations can enhance the retention of volunteers by assessing volunteer motivation and ensuring that
these motives are fulfilled by providing relevant benefits (
Stukas, Daly and Cowling 2005). Volunteers who
perceive their most important motives for volunteering were strongly aligned with opportunities to have
these motives fulfilled reported higher intentions to volunteer in the future and greater satisfaction in
volunteering (
Stukas, Daly and Cowling 2005).
As such it is important it is important that the Club have in place programs, systems and structures that
provide opportunities to align members motivations for volunteering with their volunteering experience.

Recommendation 1) Capitalise on the social motivations of volunteers by aligning club structures,
systems and programs with their
social based experience (a way to strengthen
ones social ties
) and motives to increase retention levels (see figure 12 below).

 

Tailor social activities to
current members interests
Increase & Enhance
current social activities
Enhance Members Social
Experience
Promote social benefit of
club membership

Promote Social Activities
to club members
Figure 12: Enhancing member’s social experiences
Page | 27

Recommendation 2) x Capitalise on the altruistic motivations of volunteers by aligning club
structures, systems and programs with their
values based experience (a
way to express ones altruistic and humanitarian values )
and motives to
increase retention levels (see figure 13 below).

 

Promote opportunity to
serve the community as a
benefit of club
membership
Recognise and publicise
members community
achievements
Enhance Members Values
Experiences
Demonstrate to members
how club programs and
policies relate to
community service

Provide experiences that
allow members to give
back to the community
Figure 13: Enhancing member’s values experience
Page | 28
MOTIVATING AND RETAINING DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS 8.2
The findings from the research indicate that volunteer motivation varies across different age groups. In 18-
24 year old group of volunteers perceive competition and career experience as central to their volunteering
practice. It is therefore important that club management ensure that these factors are promoted and
supported in terms of retaining members in this age category. From a competition perspective this includes
promoting competitions and surf sports programs to members of this age group as well as the opportunity
to train with fellow members and keep fit whilst volunteering in a not for profit organisation.
The Club should also seek to promote the value of career opportunities from being involved in the
organisation, in particular the opportunity for volunteers to gain experience towards their resume, making
new contacts to assist their career and the opportunity to explore a different career path. It is noted that
quite a number of volunteer lifeguards in the club also are employed by the Gold Coast City Council as
professional paid lifeguards as an occupation.

Recommendation 3) Promote competition and career factors to volunteers aged 18-24. This
would include initiatives such as enhancing the club competition
framework, providing additional training and competition experiences to
members, assist with networking opportunities to allow members to make
new business contacts and implement systems and pathways for members
to develop skills and benefits for career progression (see figure 14 below).

 

Assisting with
networking
opportunities to allow
members to make new
business contacts
Promoting the benefits
of keeping fit and
training alongside
friends
Increase retention in
18-24 Year old
volunteers by
Implementing systems
and pathways for
members to develop
skills and benefits for
career progression

Providing extra
competition and
training opportunities
and enhancing Club
Surf Sport program
Figure 14: Increasing retention in 18-24 year olds
Page | 29
In contrast to our finding with the 18-24 year old volunteers, members in the 25-34 and 35-44 age brackets
perceived understanding and enhancement as their primary reason for their volunteer motivation.

Recommendation 4) Promote understanding and enhancement factors to volunteers aged 25-44
such as the opportunity to gain a new perspective through volunteerism,
providing opportunities for members to learn and increase knowledge
through hands on experience and by Providing training and avenues for
members to learn how to deal with a variety of people (see figure 15
below).

Providing training and
avenues for members
to learn how to deal
with a variety of
people
Providing opportunities
for members to learn
and increase
knowledge through
hands on experience

Promote opportunity
to gain a new
perspective through
volunteerism
Increase retention in
25-44 Year old
volunteers by

Figure 15: Increasing retention in 25-44 year olds
Page | 30
The results from the study demonstrated that our 45+ year olds are donating their time as a result of the
altruistic values they possess. Respondents aged 45-54 and 55-64 perceived values and social interaction as
their key motivational factor for volunteering.

Recommendation 5) Promote values and social factors to volunteers aged 45+ such as publicising
achievements by these members in community service, promoting
opportunities to serve the community, providing experiences and programs that
will allow this age demographic to give back to the community and
implementing social activities that will engage this group and increase social
interaction (see figure 16 below).

 

Implement Social
activities that engage
this age group and
increase social
interaction
Promote and recognize
the opportunity to serve
the community in this
age group
Increase retention in
45+ Year old volunteers
by
Provide experiences that
will allow this age group
to give back to the
community

Publicising
achievements by these
members in community
service
Figure 16: Increasing retention in 45+ year olds
Page | 31
LEADER- MEMBER EXCHANGE-THE ROLE OF PATROL CAPTAINS IN VOLUNTEER RETENTION 8.3
The correlation analysis indicates that LMX and volunteer understanding are strongly linked. This suggests
that our group captains have a significant role in promoting a culture of volunteer understanding (a way for
volunteers to gain knowledge, skills and abilities) and enhancement (a way to help the volunteers ego grow
and develop) as part of their role.
These findings are supported by Allen and Meyer (1990) and Shacklock and Brunetto (2012), who have
previously identified that those with high levels of affective commitment are likely to be loyal and attached
to the organisation thereby reducing likelihood of leaving and lowering turnover. Our results are also
consistent with previous research results indicating that there is a positive relationship between levels of
satisfaction with LMX, their perceptions of autonomy and their affective commitment levels (Allen and
Meyer 1990).

Recommendation 6) Implementing strategies to enhance the service and communication
between patrol captains and volunteer lifesavers including patrol captain
workshops designed to increase communication and leadership skills, patrol
captain resources designed to support patrol captains in their roles as
leaders of our volunteers and Providing ongoing training and support and
personal development opportunities to develop their skills as leaders in the
club (see figure 17 below).

There are a number of recommendations that the club could implement to ensure that the benefit of the
LMX between patrol captains and volunteers is capitalised on. These include:

Continue to reward and
promote Patrol Captains
as leaders in the Club
and seek high quality
captains as leaders
Enhance the LMX Patrol
Captain/Volunteer
Relationship by:

Placing volunteers with
Patrol Captains that are
suited to their interests
and personalities
Reinforce and educate
Patrol Captains on the
importance of the Patrol
Captain-volunteer
relationships to
retaining volunteers
Providing ongoing
training and support and
personal development
opportunities to develop
their skills as leaders in
the club
Ensuring Patrol Captains
are provided with
training in effective
communication skills
workshops
Figure 17: Enhancing LMX relationships
Page | 32

REWARDING CURRUMBINS TOP SERVING VOLUNTEERS 8.4

The far majority of sampled volunteers appear to have high levels of affective commitment towards their
volunteer role. The club needs to recognise these individuals and reward them for their commitment and
service in the Club. In particular the 35+ cohort who are contributing more the most amount of volunteer
hours in the organisation.

Recommendation 7) Reward top serving volunteers with initiatives such as membership
discounts, free meals in the clubs licensed premises, and recognition of
their achievements in forums such as club newsletters, volunteer of the
month awards and volunteer thank you days (see figure 18 below).

Offering membership
discounts based on
number of hrs
volunteered each season

Offering meals and
Supporters Club benefits
and discounts to top
serving volunteers
Recognise top serving
volunteers in forums such
as volunteer of the month
awards and club
publications
Reward highly
committed and existing
volunteers by:
Introduce thank you days
to reward volunteers and
interact them on a social
basis

Figure 18: Rewarding committed volunteers
Page | 33
HOW OUR VOLUNTEERS COMPARE WITH OTHER AUSTRALIAN GROUPS 8.5
Volunteers in other community organisations often volunteer out of a sense of personal mental health and
to contribute to community mental health. In contrast, our Currumbin Beach Vikings Surf Life Saving Club
volunteers are motivated mostly out of a ‘sense of club’, in that they strongly believe in the ‘Vikings’
mission. Other factors motivating the volunteers at Currumbin include career progression (particularly our
younger members), a sense of community, and opportunities to develop their competitiveness within the
life saving competition arena. These findings demonstrate that competition has a strong link with the
motivation of surf life savers as found by previous researchers (Hall and Innes 2008).
The results from our study show the strongest links between member’s commitment to the organisation
and the altruistic values that they possess. Results indicate that individuals commit to the organisation out
of a sense of personal values (a way to express ones altruistic and humanitarian values) and social
interaction (a way to strengthen ones social ties). Values such as altruism, empathy and charity predict
roughly 25% of volunteer commitment. This is consistent with previous findings in research on volunteer
motivation in other industries including Western Australian and South Australian volunteer studies,
regional tourism and university student studies (Baum, Modra, Cox, Cooke and Potter 1999, Anderson and
Cairncross 2005, Blanchard, Rostant and Finn 1995, Esmond & Dunlop 2004).
The results from the study show that there were a number of motivational factors on the volunteer
motivation index (VFI) that were shown to be strong amongst the group at Currumbin Surf Lifesaving Club.
In particular the Career (a way to enhance career prospects) and Values (a way to express ones altruistic
and humanitarian values) factors were the two most strongly developed and most valued sub constructs
amongst the respondent group.
The study sought to examine the relationship between patrol captains as club leaders and volunteers as
club members to determine whether patrol captains had an effect on the motivations and commitment of
club volunteers (LMX theory). Results from the study show that our patrol captains have a strong effect on
the motivations of club volunteers. These findings are consistent with findings in other industries such as
nursing and engineering (Shacklock and Brunetto 2012). The findings also reinforce the links between the
dyadic relationship of these two groups as demonstrated by Vecchio and Gobdel (1984).

Page | 34
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Bang, H., Won, D., & Kim, Y. (2009). Motivations, commitment, and intentions to continue volunteering for sporting
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Event Management, 13(2), 69-81.
Baum, F., Modra, C., Buish, R., Cox, E., Cooke, R., & Potter, R. (1999) Volunteering and social capital: an Adelaide
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Blanchard, A.., Finn, L., & Rostant, J. (1995) Involving Curtin in a volunteer community service program: A report on a
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Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
Boezeman, E. J., & Ellemers, N. (2008). Pride and respect in volunteers’ organizational commitment. European Journal
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Brunetto, Y., & Farr-Wharton, R. (2003). The commitment and satisfaction of lower-ranked police officers: lessons for
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directions in psychological science
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Cuskelly, G, Taylor, T, Hoye, R, & Darcy, S 2006, ‘Volunteer Management Practices and Volunteer Retention: A Human
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Doherty, AJ 1998, ‘Managing Our Human Resourcves: A review of Organisational Behaviour in Sport’, Sport
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Page | 36
APPENDIX 11.
APPENDIX 1
VFI Questions (30)
1. Volunteering can help me get my foot in the door at a place where I’d like to work
2. My friends volunteer.
3. I am concerned about those less fortunate than myself.
4. People I’m close to want me to volunteer.
5. Volunteering makes me feel important
6. People I know share an interest in community service.
7. No matter how bad I’ve been feeling, volunteering helps me to forget about it.
8. I am genuinely concerned about the particular group I am serving.
9. By volunteering, I feel less lonely.
10. I can make new contacts that might help my business career.
11. Doing volunteer work relieves me of some of the guilt over being more fortunate than others.
12. I can learn more about the cause for which I am working.
13. Volunteering increases my self-esteem.
14. Volunteering allows me to gain a new perspective on things.
15. Volunteering allows me to explore different career options.
16. I feel compassion toward people in need.
17. Others with whom I am close place a high value on community service.
18. Volunteering lets me learn through direct “hands on” experience.
19. I feel it is important to help others.
20. Volunteering helps me work through my own personal problems.
21. Volunteering will help me succeed in my chosen profession.
22. I can do something for a cause that is important to me.
23. Volunteering is an important activity to the people I know best.
24. Volunteering is a good escape from my own troubles.
25. I can learn how to deal with a variety of people.
26. Volunteering makes me feel needed.
27. Volunteering makes me feel better about myself.
28. Volunteering experience will look good on my resume.
29. Volunteering is a way to make new friends.
30. I can explore my own strengths
Page | 37
APPENDIX 2
Leader- Member- Exchange Questions (8)
1. My patrol captain is satisfied with my work
2. My patrol captain understands my volunteer problems and needs
3. My patrol captain recognises my potential
4. My patrol captain is willing to use his/her power to help me solve volunteer problems
5. My patrol captain would be willing to bail me out at his/her own expense
6. I have enough confidence in my patrol captain that I would defend and justify his/her decision if he/she were not
present to do so
7. I have a good working relationship with my patrol captain
8. My patrol captain and I share similar values, beliefs and practices
Page | 38
APPENDIX 3
Affective Commitment Questions (6)
1. I would be very happy to spend the rest of my surf lifesaving volunteer career with the Club
2. The Club has a great deal of personal meaning for me
3. I enjoy discussing the Club with my friends
4. I do not feel emotionally attached to the Club
5. I feel a strong sense of belonging to the Club
6. I feel strong ties with the Club
Page | 39
APPENDIX 4
Intentions to Turnover Questions (3)
1. I frequently think about leaving the Club
2. It is likely that I would volunteer for another Club
3. It is likely that I would leave the Club within the next year
Page | 40
APPENDIX 5
Surf Life Saving Motivation Questions (4)
1. My main motivation for volunteering is to compete at carnivals
2. I enjoy training alongside my friends
3. I Volunteer as a lifesaver to keep fit
4. I enjoy the competitive environment the club provides
Page | 41

APPENDIX 6
Leader Member
Exchange (LMX)
1. My patrol captain is satisfied with my work. 3 3
2. My patrol captain understands my volunteer problems and
needs.
3 3
3. My patrol captain recognises my potential. 3 3
4. My patrol captain is willing to use his/her power to help me
solve volunteer problems.
3 3
5. My patrol captain would be willing to bail me out at his/her
own expense.
3 ×
6. I have enough confidence in my patrol captain that I would
defend and justify his/her decision if he/she were not present to
do so.
3 3
7. I have a good working relationship with my patrol captain. 3 3
8. My patrol captain and I share similar values, beliefs and
practices.
3 3

LMX arrived as a 7 Item scale through exploratory factor analysis, with a Cronbach’s alpha score of 0.927
(indicating that the variable had a very strong reliability).

Page | 42

APPENDIX 7
Surf Lifesaving Specific
factor (Competition)
1. My main motivation for volunteering is to compete at carnivals × 3
2. I enjoy training alongside my friends. × 3
3. I volunteer as a lifesaver to keep fit. × 3
4. I enjoy the competitive environment the Club Provides × 3

Surf Life Saving Specific motivation (Competition) arrived as a 4 item scale through exploratory factor
analysis, with a Cronbach’s alpha score of 0.861

Page | 43

APPENDIX 8
Career factor 1. Volunteering can help me get my foot in the door at a place
where I’d like to work.
3 3
10. I can make new contacts that might help my business career. 3 3
15. Volunteering allows me to explore different career options 3 3
21. Volunteering will help me succeed in my chosen profession. 3 ×
28. Volunteering experience will look good on my resume. 3 3

 

Social factor 2. My Friends volunteer. 3 3
4. People I’m close to want me to volunteer. 3 ×
6. People I know share an interest in community service 3 3
17. Others with who I am close to place a high value on
community service.
3 ×
23. Volunteering is an important activity to the people I know
best.
3 ×

Career/Social arrived as a 5 item scale through exploratory factor analysis, with a Cronbach’s alpha score of 0.852
Page | 44

APPENDIX 9
Values factor 3. I am concerned about those less fortunate than myself. 3 3
8. I am genuinely concerned about the particular group I am
serving.
3 ×
16. I feel compassion toward people in need. 3 3
19. I feel it is important to help others. 3 ×
22. I can do something for a cause that is important to me. 3 ×
6. People I know share an interest in community service. 3 3

Values arrived as a 3 item scale through exploratory factor analysis, with a Cronbach’s alpha score of 0.704
Page | 45

APPENDIX 10
VFI Content Item Established
Previously
Established
in our scale
Protective factor 7. No matter how bad I’ve been feeling, volunteering helps me to
forget about it.
3 ×
9. By volunteering I feel less lonely. 3 ×
11. Doing volunteer work relieves me of some of the guilt over
being more fortunate than others.
3 ×
20. Volunteering helps me work through by own personal
problems
3 ×
24. Volunteering is a good escape from my own troubles. 3 ×

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APPENDIX 11
Understanding factor 12. I can learn more about the cause for which I am working. 3 ×
14. Volunteering allows me to gain a new perspective on things. 3 3
18. Volunteering lets me learn through direct “hands on”
experience.
3 ×
25. I can learn to deal with a variety of people. 3 ×
30. I can explore my own strengths. 3 ×

 

Enhancement factor 5. I Volunteering makes me feel important 3 ×
13. Volunteering increases my self esteem. 3 ×
26. Volunteering makes me feel needed 3 ×
27. Volunteering makes me feel better about myself. 3 ×
29. Volunteering is a way to make new friends. 3 ×

Understanding/Enhancement arrived as a 4 item scale through exploratory factor analysis, with a Cronbach’s alpha
score of 0.842

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APPENDIX 12
Intention to Turnover
(ITT)
1. I frequently think about leaving the Club. 3 3
2. It is likely I would volunteer for another Club. 3 ×
3. It is likely that I would leave the Club within the next year. 3 3

Intention to Turnover arrived as a 2 item scale through exploratory factor analysis, with a Cronbach’s alpha
score of 0.903

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APPENDIX 13
Affective Commitment
(AC)
1. I would be very happy to spend the rest of my surf lifesaving
volunteer career with the Club
3 3
2. The Club has a great deal of personal meaning for me. 3 3
3. I enjoy discussing the Club with my friends. 3 3
4. I do not feel emotionally attached to the Club. 3 ×
5. I feel a strong sense of belonging to the Club. 3 3
6. I feel strong ties with the Club. 3 3

Affective Commitment arrived as a 5 item scale through exploratory factor analysis, with a Cronbach’s
alpha score of 0.842

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APPENDIX 14
VMI/Competition Rotated Factor Matrixa

Factor
1 2 3 4
Volunteering allows me to explore different career
options
Volunteering can help me get my foot in the door at a
place where I’d like to work
Volunteering experience will look good on my resume
I can make new contacts that might help my business
career
My Friends volunteer
Volunteering allows me to gain a new perspective on
things
Volunteering increases my self esteem
I can explore my own strengths
Volunteering lets me learn through direct “hands on”
experience
I enjoy the competitive environment the club provides
I enjoy training alongside my friends
I volunteer as a lifesaver to keep fit
My motivation for volunteering is to compete at carnivals
I am concerned about those less fortunate than myself
People I know share an interest in community service
I feel compassion toward people in need
.776
.771
.683
.667
.598
.735
.734
.671
.669
.858
.819
.711
.636
.727
.616
.570

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APPENDIX 15
affective_commitment
V_career Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (2-
tailed)
N
.095
.385
86
affective_commitment Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (2-
tailed)
N
1
86
v_understanding_enhance Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (2-
tailed)
N
.140
.197
86
Volunteer_Competition Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (2-
tailed)
N
.161
.138
86
Volunteer_values_social Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (2-
tailed)
N
.230*
.033
86