Methodological Analysis

BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY: Methodological Analysis through fault tree and event tree analysis

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AbstractThe disasters are mainly by the nature which is considered to be the major complex phenomenon. The modelling is through the systematic and the logical methodology that helps in identifying the root causes and then defining on the allocation of the resources with preventing the situations. The techniques are related to the single off-the-shelf model which is insufficient for providing the effective and then there are realistic approach. The discussion is about the Crisis Tree Analysis which is for visualizing on the combination of the events that might lead to certain disasters. Hence, the criticality of the event is based on assessing through the use of Analytical Hierarchy Process. The approach is based on the handling of the poor site selection with the risk’s documentation and the management. The effective management techniques are for analyzing, modelling and then monitoring through preventing the accidents along with the different safety investments that are investigated. Not only this, there are safety measures that needs to be implemented with the small and the medium scale industries that are reviewed with better preparedness for the initiating on the safety of industry and the disaster management can easily manage the disaster with the small and the medium scale industries.

Keywords—disaster, industrial safety, risk management, security standards.


It has been seen that there are companies who are concerned about handling the profitability. The concern is about the safety related investments which are non-productive. Hence, the discussion is about the safety measures with the companies not being limited to the resources. The allocation of the resources is mainly in the situations which are constrained which turned out to be the major problem for the decision making. Therefore, the complexity is mapped through handling the Fault Tree Analysis with Analytic Hierarchy Process. The approach is based on the integral approach with the techniques that are related to the fault tree analysis and the Bayesian updates. The objectives are related to the approach for the model with preventing the failures that relates to the optimization and the use of the effective allocation of the resources [1].

A.Research Objectives

The proposed approach is about the problem structuring method for building the hierarchy of the issues with the crisis tree analysis that leads to the display of the facts and the events that is for visualizing the system functionality or the critical components. The phases are related to work on the forms which are related to the framework with the deceptive approaches that comes through handling the combination of basic events.

B.Background Research

The majority of the disasters have led to the fires, explosion and the emissions with the damage to the people and the environment which is heavy as well. The occupational health hazards and the effects are identified through documenting the leakage of methyl isocyanate.

The paper will discuss about the theory of Domino Effect along with the research methods and the tools. With this, there will be implementation and results that will highlight on the processes and how the Bhopal gas tragedy has been invoked with the risks management.

II.Literature Review

For the nodal ministries, the Bhopal gas tragedy disaster in India has triggered to the major problem for the world. It has led to the issues about learning the lessons about the industrial safety. Hence, there was a major problem of the leakage of the pesticides with the estimation of 42 tons of the methyl isocyanate and 500000 people who were being exposed to MIC. The accidents were there when the safety measures tend to fail. The number of accidental victims were being largely exceeding with learning from the accidents of the explosions [2].

A.The anatomy of Domino Accieent

Considering the problems, it was seen that there was a major promotion of industrialization and then there was an attraction of the MNCs to India. There was a major chemical reaction which was mainly due to the engrossing of the water for the tank of the methyl isocyanate and the non-functional safety systems. It led to creating the uncontrolled exothermic reactions with unleashing of the MIC to the continued two hours through the line of the vent. It is about the effect of catastrophe where there were more people being killed than there were 3000 of the people [3]. The major reason was the safety negligence survey warning which tend to be popping prior to the disaster as well. Hence, the outdated locations of the industry theory have been involved with the placing of production facilities that are found to be close to the dwelling areas and the markets [4]. The major reason for the disaster of Bhopal is where the industry was mainly in the populated area where the victims have been to high. Hence, the industries are involved with the reports with the viral plant of the vaccine and the Research Development Explosive (RDX) company which was in proximity in Jaipur. Hence, the other report included the members in Chembur in Mumbai with the confronting of the environmental and the problems of pollution that comes with the effluents that comes from the refinery of the oil. Hence, the petrol chemical plants and the fertilizer plants and the thermal power plants are considered to be the hazardous units which are in the city. According to the research, it was based in U.S. about the location for the 1000 schools. Here, the research is about the outdated location theory that includes the facility production with dwelling the different areas and the markets. It is considered to be the major reason for the disaster of Bhopal which is in the industry that is found to be in the location that is thickly populated. Hence, the reports are related to the viral plant of the vaccine with the Research Development Explosive company that is near Jaipur. It is seen that the research is about 4.6 million children schools which are in the facility mile and then stores the potential risks of the chemicals [5]. The prevention is from the death roll by the proper relocation of the industry. Hence, they are also found to be populated densely with the reduction of the chances or the casualty from any of the future hazard accidents and the explosions.

Problem Tree in LFA

Figure 1: Problem tree in LFA (Eckerman, 2005)

III.Research Methodology

The reasons are related to the reliability with the MIN that comes with the industrialization of the glared omissions. It is about providing the proper mitigation facilities and the site of industries. Bhopal carbide plant tend to pose to the city with the major response that is light. There is increased safety casualization with the sad reckoning that involves the approach of the safety infrastructures which are being defined at the poor level. Hence, there are competitive global industrial environment with the disaster that is mainly due to the worst management, or the non-compliance and the industrial safety rules [6]. The poor level includes the observance for the safety norms which are for handling the understaffed and the under resourced people or the working environment. Hence, the industries will have to handle the changes in the attitude with the recognition of the improved safety measures and the worker safety.

The worst massive disasters are mainly aftermath Bhopal in the history of humans which was mainly related to the organizational and the regulatory failings. The survey and the assessment reports are based on the safety culture [7]. The focus is on the management with the postponing on the upgrade of the refinery with the handling of the equipment and the storage tanks with catching fire and then exploding the same.

The containers of shipping hold the gunpowder with the naval base on Cyprus exploded. It is mainly due to the failure on the security and the management of the poor stockpile. The hydrofluoric acid is about the leakage with the 5 worker with the plant and the injury of 18 people. There are release of more than approximately 31000 pounds for the toxic volatile organic carbon material. The accident is mainly due to the rupturing with the exchange of heat that is mainly due to the vapor cloud that is ignited through the unknown sources, which can lead to the explosion. The chemical plant explosion is mainly due to the heating up with the pressurized containers with the handling of the human negligence. It comes with the Elk River chemical spill that has been in U.S. State of West Virginia [8]. The crude 4 methylcyclohexane methanol was released mainly from the holes in the tank.

Quantitative Risks Analysis Techniques for Risks Assessment

Second Model of FTA (Eckerman, 2005)

IV.Implementation and Results

The documentation and the management are based on how the industries are related to the accidents costlier. If the accidents are costly, then there are chances about the occurrence which is also less. Hence, the requirements and the documents of safety are mapped with the view of the public check mainly on the regulatory bodies. It is for the educating of the public with bridging the gaps that are mainly for handling the perceived risks and the actual risks. [9] The safety discipline is about the changing mindset with invoking the strong awareness for improving the industrial safety and the management of the disaster. The industries tend to follow the disciplines of safety with paving the ways for the intangible and the tangible benefits. The documentation of the risks is done by the experts of US for the Bhopal Plant who are warned for the accident chances. Hence, the management tend to ignore the safety with the other emergency procedures which are not implemented and leads to the leakage of the gas. The acts are about the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster Act (1985) etc.

The understanding is about the procedures and the practices that relates to the risks involved with the essence of the hazards and the study of operations. It includes the poor risks assessment practices that are related to the toxic facilities as well. The poor safety specifications and the failure of designing is defined at the corporate level which comes with the major implications that includes the project formulation phase. The hazard assessment needs to be carried with the safety levels that are being adapted at the hazardous facility. Hence, the operators might not be skilled, and the population is mainly for the industrial facilities, with the emergency management procedures that are likely to be slow mainly due to the difficulty in the communication and the transportation [10].

Fault Tree Analysis

The fault tree analysis is about the technique which is associated to the component failure, human error, environmental conditions and the other potential events which can lead to certain undesired events. Hence, the FTA is for the handling of basic events with focusing on the vital roles that identities on the events which is causing the accident. The fault tree analysis techniques are used for the risk’s assessment, where the threats and the risks are evaluated based on the:

Device description

Hazard identification

Analysis of risks

Assessment of risks

Addressing the corrective actions.

Event tree Analysis Method (Eckerman, 2005)

The event tree analysis method has been considering the series of the events which tend to occur with the range of the catastrophic disaster. The analysis techniques includes the top events of the accident. The event tree represents the events like the component failure, insufficient training, and fault in the system.

Fig : Bhopal Plant process



The discussion is about the occurrence for the accident triggered with the safety management measures that leads to the elucidating the changes which could lead to the major consequences. Not only this, there are safety study committee with the industrial safety divisions that tend to create the identification of the major hazards and then handling the reviews of the requirement with protection system and the plant of safety. Hence, the committee is involved in handling the triggers for the safety management measures.

The issues are related to the information related errors with the problems about the reduction in operations and the maintenance staff. Hence, the MIC plant tend to make use of the non-trained superintendent with the operated related errors that comes with the poor safety concerns. The failure is based on the operations that comes with communicating information on the rapid pressure with building the MIC facility. There is leakage of the same with police officials enquiring about the leakage of MIC as well. Hence, the information is related to the adhoc response by the operators with no specific instructions on how one can lead to handle the emergency. It comes with the government standards with handling the absence of the formal procedures with the accident analysis report. It is when the firm is involved in building up the facilities that includes the overruling. The corporate management has the undenied responsibilities with the system and procedures defined for the local management. The experience of the industrialist countries includes the safety matters which are at work and then they require to handle the responsibilities of the local and the national government as well. The analysis of the failure is defined through the technical failure which is for 21 errors and the 12 of them are being caused through the operational failures.

VI.Risk Design Analysis of Bhopal Gas Tragedy

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The committee is involved with handling the leading changes and the consequences. The industrial safety divisions are related to the creation of the identification of major hazards. Hence, the visiting of all the installations with the safety improvement, with the safety regulations that are revised as well. The industry plant safety division includes the industrial issues with the prevention and protection. Hence, there is a need to review about the development and preparing for the safety checklist to carry out the detailed study and the assessment for the better programs of safety. Not only this, the industrial and the fire safety review is created with the auditing that is needed to carry out by the people focusing on the requirements. It depends on the potential hazards for handling operations of plant.

. The future analysis is based on the facts with the handling of problems tree that gave the insights about the connection in between the cause and effects. The analysis gives the formulation about the direct cause of the leakage which is unclear. With this, a good safety management system in future is needed with the emergency and safety management plan to ensure about the tool to minimize the disasters like Bhopal in future. The perspectives of the disasters are in the past which are for visualizing the future industrial safety. The demands are for the industrial safety standards and the safety planning or the threats that comes from the catastrophic events.


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