Bruce, T. (2005) says that Froebel, Montessori, and Steiner had similar theories as they all believed that the whole child would be developed through an appropriate curriculum. These early childhood pioneers opened their schools in the early 19th century, pre and post-war times when children had nothing and needed to learn self-survival skills.
They all shared a common belief’s that children went through sensitive learning cycles of development. As Pound (2006) outlines that each pioneer devised their own learning equipment and objects with affixed forms such as spheres, and cubes, and these materials could manipulate shape and transform.
Their unique curricula emphasized on meaningful practical life experiences such as self-help, gardening, cleaning, and cooking. Simple exercises were used to nurture mathematical skills, such as chopping, and counting carrots into circles and cubes, weighing flour, setting the table, and counting the plates, bowls, and utensils. They believed that children could learn from adults as they generally go about their daily work, this was the provision that they provided.