Engineering discipline and field

KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT
SELF REVIEW (KA02 FORM)

Name of applicant:

Membership number
or date of birth:

Section One – Instructions and Guidance

Carefully read the following instructions and guidance. They are designed to assist you in providing in providing a portfolio of evidence that best demonstrates the comprehension and application of your engineering knowledge to Washington Accord equivalence.

Section One – Instructions and Guidance

Familiarise yourself with the definition of ‘complex engineering problems’ (Appendix One) as you are required to demonstrate you can apply your engineering knowledge to solve complex engineering problems.

Identify the ‘engineering discipline and field’ (Appendix Two) you will provide evidence of your comprehension and application of engineering knowledge in.

The knowledge assessment is based on Washington Accord knowledge profile. This form is designed to capture information to assist the evaluation of your evidence

WARNING: Having your Knowledge Assessment written by another person or persons (this includes all hiring or use of any third-party professional writers/companies to assist or complete your documentation) constitutes unethical behaviour and may result in serious consequences including but not limited to: 1) immediate rejection of the application along with the imposition of a stand-down period before you can re-apply or 2) reporting of your details to Immigration New Zealand.

Section Two – Knowledge Profile

As you do not have a formal engineering qualification that formally benchmarks to a Washington Accord accredited degree, it is essential that you demonstrate that you have acquired an equivalent level of knowledge.

The Context and performance indicators provide guidance on the evidence to be provided

Consider each element of the knowledge profile, including the context statements and performance indicators. Summarise key aspects of your knowledge under each element and how this has been developed through academic study, on-job learning and/or continuing professional development. It is important you use the performance indicators and complexity definitions to enable you to describe your knowledge and how it has been developed.

When describing how your educational program contributed to your development, focus on the more advanced pieces of work you did, the knowledge you needed in order to perform that work, and the abilities you needed in order to apply your knowledge in an engineering context.

The word document is formatted to allow you expand a text box if required.

Write your material in the first-person using ‘I’ or ‘me’ instead of ‘we’ or ‘us’. This makes it easy for the assessors to see what your personal contribution was.

Section Three – Evidence of Application of Knowledge

Describe 3-4 engineering projects or activities (Work/Study Episodes) that you have been involved with, which demonstrate your ability to apply your engineering knowledge to solve complex engineering problems. Think of activities where you have had to apply a high level of engineering knowledge – such as some analysis that you have done, work you have done in scoping a problem and then developing a solution or design. What engineering models did you use? What assumptions were made in the development of the model and how did you test the model was relevant in the way you used it?

For engineers with limited practical experience post-graduation, project work undertaken during your study is likely to be one of the best ways of illustrating the application of your knowledge. As well as projects conducted within university or college, you may be able to draw on any industry experience required as part of the educational program.

You are required to include actual samples of your work – calculations, analyses or reports that you have personally undertaken – to substantiate your work/study episodes.

Write your material in the first-person using ‘I’ or ‘me’ instead of ‘we’ or ‘us. This makes it easy for the assessors to see what your personal contribution was.

The word document is formatted to allow you expand a text box if required.

Section Four – Supplementary Evidence

You are required to submit a certified copy of your academic transcript(s) (formal record of papers taken, and grades received) if you have not submitted these to Engineering New Zealand already.

Summarise your work history but include a representative sample of specific engineering projects or activities that evidence the development or application of the knowledge profile.

Rather than listing all your CPD activities, provide details of those activities that have extended your professional engineering knowledge in your discipline and field and have assisted you to develop the knowledge profile of a professional engineer. A summary of all relevant activities – including those going beyond the most recent 6 years – will assist knowledge assessors in assessing your engineering knowledge. Assessors will be looking for how any gap between your qualification and a Washington Accord qualification has been bridged by your CPD.

The word document is formatted to allow you expand a text box if required.

Section Two – Knowledge Profile

Element One

A systematic, theory-based understanding of the natural sciences applicable to your discipline (e.g. calculus-based physics).

Context

All engineering fields are rooted in one or more of the natural sciences. In a broad context, natural science is separated into physical and biological sciences. Physical sciences include chemistry, calculus-based physics, astronomy, geology, geomorphology, and hydrology. Biological sciences involve living systems and include biology, physiology, microbiology, and ecology.

Washington Accord graduates are expected to be able to apply this knowledge of the natural sciences to solve complex engineering problems in their discipline.

Performance Indicators

Fundamental quantitative knowledge underpinning nature and its phenomena.

Knowledge of the physical world including physics, chemistry and other areas of physical or biological science relevant to your discipline

Knowledge of key concepts of the scientific method and other inquiry and problem-solving processes

Application of knowledge from one or more of the natural sciences to the solution of complex engineering problems relevant to your discipline.

Summarise your knowledge of the natural sciences relevant to your discipline and how it has been developed through formal study, on-job learning and/or continuing professional development.

Note: please cross reference to your academic transcript(s) and continuing professional development records, as appropriate.

Provide annotations to your supplementary evidence (document and page number)

Element Two

Conceptually based mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and formal aspects of computer and information science to support analysis and modelling applicable to your discipline.

Context

Branches of mathematics applied in engineering include arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, differential equations, numerical analysis, optimization, probability and statistics, simulation, and matrix theory. Engineers apply mathematics in a wide variety of functions typically carried out in engineering organisations such as planning, design, manufacturing, construction, operations, finance, budgeting, and accounting.

Washington Accord graduates are expected to be able to apply this mathematical knowledge to solve complex engineering problems in their discipline.

Performance Indicators

Knowledge of mathematics, statistics and numerical methods that supports the development or application of models that replicate ‘real world’ behaviours

An understanding of the assumptions behind theoretical models and their impacts in the development and use of those models

Ability to organise and analyse a data set to determine its statistical variability

Knowledge of trigonometry, probability and statistics, differential and integral calculus, and multivariate calculus that supports the solving of complex engineering problems

Ability to apply differential equations to characterize time-dependent physical processes

Summarise your mathematical knowledge relevant to your discipline and how it has been developed through formal study, on-job learning and/or continuing professional development.

Note: please cross reference to your academic transcript(s) and continuing professional development records, as appropriate.

Provide annotations to your supplementary evidence (document and page number)

Element Three

A systematic, theory-based formulation of engineering fundamentals required in the engineering discipline.

Context

Engineering fundamentals provide the knowledge base for engineering specialisations and represent a systematic formulation of engineering concepts and principles based on mathematical and natural sciences to support applications.

The core areas of engineering fundamentals knowledge include fluid mechanics, statics and dynamics, electric circuits, solid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, mass transfer, and properties of materials.

Washington Accord graduates are expected to be able to apply this knowledge of engineering fundamentals to solve complex engineering problems.

Performance Indicators

Ability to define key factual information in core areas of fundamental engineering knowledge relevant to your engineering discipline

Evidence of sufficient depth of knowledge of engineering fundamentals to demonstrate an ability to think rationally and independently within and outside a chosen field of specialisation

Evidence of sufficient breadth of knowledge of engineering concepts and principles to allow subsequent professional development across a broad spectrum of engineering

Ability to apply knowledge of engineering fundamentals to solve complex engineering problems relevant to your discipline

Summarise your knowledge of the core engineering fundamentals (as listed above) and how they have been developed through formal study, on-job learning and/or continuing professional development.

Note: please cross reference to your academic transcript(s) and continuing professional development records, as appropriate.

Provide annotations to your supplementary evidence (document and page number)

Element Four

Engineering specialist knowledge that provides theoretical frameworks and bodies of knowledge for the accepted practice areas in the engineering discipline; much is at the forefront of the discipline.

Context

In addition to a broad understanding of fundamental engineering principles, professional engineers are required to develop specialised engineering knowledge to support their practice. This may be aligned with traditionally defined fields of specialisation such as structural, industrial or geotechnical engineering; coherent combinations of such traditional areas; or more recently emerging fields such as software, biomedical or mechatronics engineering.

Advancing technological knowledge and complexity means that technical specialisation is increasingly necessary for an engineer to remain abreast of technological development throughout their career.

Washington Accord graduates are expected to be able to apply this engineering specialist knowledge to solve complex engineering problems.

Performance Indicators

Evidence of sufficient depth of knowledge to support practice within one or more recognised field of engineering

Evidence of a systematic understanding of the coherent body of knowledge related to a particular field of engineering; its underlying principles and concepts; its usage and applications; and analytical and problem-solving techniques

Ability to apply specialist engineering knowledge to solve complex engineering problems


Summarise your specialist engineering knowledge and how it has been developed through formal study, on-job learning and/or continuing professional development.

Note: please cross reference to your academic transcript(s) and continuing professional development records, as appropriate.

Provide annotations to your supplementary evidence (document and page number)

Element Five

Knowledge that supports engineering design.

Context

The design process – the root of engineering – is the process of devising a system, component or process to meet desired needs. Engineering design is a systematic process that involves problem definition and scoping, research, analysis, option development and selection, modelling to predict future performance, detailed design and testing. Importantly, it also involves communication of the outcome in a way that enables the design solution to be realised.

Washington Accord graduates are expected to be able to apply this knowledge of the design process to solve complex engineering problems.

Performance Indicators

Ability to undertake research and analysis to support the design process

Ability to investigate a situation or the behaviour of a system and identify relevant causes and effects

Ability to develop from first principles and construct mathematical, physical and conceptual models of situations, systems and devices, with a clear understanding of the assumptions made in development of such models

Application of technical knowledge, design methods and appropriate tools and resources to design components, systems or processes to meet specified criteria

Ability to analyse the pros and cons of alternative design options to support the development of an optimised design alternative

Ability to analyse the constructability or manufacturing feasibility of a project or product

Experience of personally conducting a significant design exercise, providing evidence of the consideration of various realistic constraints, such as safety, reliability, ethics, economic factors, aesthetics and social impact.

Ability to apply appropriate design methods in solving complex engineering problems

Summarise your knowledge that supports engineering design relevant to your discipline and how it has been developed and applied through formal study, on-job learning and/or continuing professional development.

Note: please cross reference to your academic transcript(s) and continuing professional development records, as appropriate.

Provide annotations to your supplementary evidence (document and page number)

Element Six

Knowledge of engineering practice in the engineering discipline.

Context

Engineers require knowledge of a broad range of tools and techniques relating to technical (measurement, modelling, drawing, design), business (financial management, project management) and interpersonal (communications, teamwork) aspects of modern engineering practice.

Washington Accord graduates are expected to be able to:

Create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools, including prediction and modelling, to complex engineering problems, with an understanding of the limitations

Apply knowledge of management principles and economic decision making as part of the management of engineering projects

Function effectively as an individual and as a member or leader in diverse teams

Communicate effectively with both technical and non-technical audiences

Performance Indicators

Tools and technologies:

Awareness of critical issues affecting current technical and professional practice

Awareness of current tools of analysis, simulation, visualisation, synthesis and design, particularly computer-based models and packages, and competence in the use of a representative selection of these

Appreciation of the accuracy and limitations of such tools and the assumptions inherent in their use

Knowledge of materials and resources relevant to the discipline and their main properties and ability to select appropriate materials and techniques for particular objectives

Knowledge of a wide range of laboratory procedures relevant to the discipline and a clear understanding of the principles and practices of laboratory safety

knowledge of current types of systems, equipment, information technology, and specifications that accomplish specific design objectives

Communication:

write correspondence that clearly and concisely communicates facts and circumstances related to a project, product or process

plan, prepare and deliver an oral presentation, with appropriate visual aids and other supporting materials

communicate effectively with both technical and non-technical individuals and audiences

Engineering management principles and economic decision making:

apply appropriate tools and techniques to monitor project schedules and costs

Teamwork:

Operate as an effective team member or leader of a multidisciplinary team

Summarise your knowledge in each of these core areas underpinning engineering practice and how it was developed through formal study, on-job learning and/or continuing professional development.

Note: please cross reference to your academic transcript(s) and continuing professional development records, as appropriate.

Provide annotations to your supplementary evidence (document and page number)

Element Seven

Comprehension of the role of engineering in society and identified issues in engineering practice in the discipline: ethics and the professional responsibility of an engineer to public safety; the impacts of engineering activity: economic, social, cultural, environmental and sustainability.

Context

Engineers design artefacts (facilities, structures, systems, products and processes) that are intended to meet a societal need, but which typically impact on individuals or groups in different ways. As a result, design and decision-making processes must take account of often conflicting stakeholder needs. An understanding of this societal context and the ethical obligations that the engineer has in service of society are critical components of engineering practice.

Washington Accord graduates are expected to be able to:

Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of engineering practice

Understand and evaluate the sustainability and impact of professional engineering work in the solution of complex engineering problems in societal and environmental contexts

Performance Indicators

Demonstration of ethical behaviour in accordance with ethical codes of conduct and established norms of professional conduct

Evidence of making ethical decisions and regulating one’s own professional conduct in accordance with a relevant code of ethical conduct

Implementation of appropriate health and safety practices

Application of safe practices in laboratory, test and experimental procedures

Awareness of the social and environmental effects of their engineering activities

Awareness of sustainable technologies and sustainable development methodologies

Ability to identify risks as a consequence of engineering compromises made as a result of project or business constraints, and understanding of techniques to mitigate, eliminate or minimise risk

Knowledge of appropriate risk management techniques used to assess the accuracy, reliability and authenticity of information

Understanding of the role of quality management systems tools and processes

Summarise your knowledge of the role of engineering in society and how it has been developed through formal study, on-job learning and/or continuing professional development.

Note: please cross reference to your academic transcript(s) and continuing professional development records, as appropriate.

Provide annotations to your supplementary evidence (document and page number)

Element Eight

Engagement with selected knowledge in the research literature of the discipline.

Context

Research and broader lifelong learning capabilities are essential if the engineer is to remain up to date with rapidly evolving scientific knowledge, technology and engineering tools critical to engineering practice.

Washington Accord graduates are expected to be able to use research-based knowledge and research methods as part of the investigation of complex problems in their discipline.

Performance Indicators

Advanced knowledge in at least one area within your discipline, to a level that engages with current developments in that area

Understanding of how new developments relate to established theory and practice and to other disciplines with which they interact

Describe advancements in engineering research and technology and science in a particular area of engineering practice

Review research articles pertaining to a project component typically encountered in a specific area of engineering design

Choose topics most appropriate for continuing education to increase depth of technical knowledge pertinent to the specific area of engineering practice

Commitment to lifelong learning

Summarise your research knowledge and how it has been developed through formal study, on-job learning and/or continuing professional development.

Note: please cross reference to your academic transcript(s) and continuing professional development records, as appropriate.

Provide annotations to your supplementary evidence (document and page number)

SECTION THREE – EVIDENCE OF APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE

In this section you are required to provide evidence of the application of your engineering knowledge using 3-4 engineering projects or activities (Work/Study Episodes) that you have been involved with.

Provide a general overview of the scope or parameters of each project or activity, your role in it and the particular challenges or complexities involved. Then describe, in narrative form, how it provides evidence of the application of different aspects of your engineering knowledge. Cross reference to the relevant elements of the knowledge profile in the right-hand column.

You are also required to complete the Knowledge Matrix to summarise the contribution to knowledge demonstration made by each project. The work/study episodes are expected to provide at least 2 examples of the application of each knowledge element.

Work/Study Episode 1

Overview of the project

Your role and responsibilities

Complexities (using the complexity definitions) and challenges of the project

How does this project demonstrate application of your engineering knowledge?

Element

Work/Study Episode 2

Overview of the project

Your role and responsibilities

Complexities (using the complexity definitions) and challenges of the project

How does this project demonstrate application of your engineering knowledge?

Element

Work/Study Episode 3

Overview of the project

Your role and responsibilities

Complexities (using the complexity definitions) and challenges of the project

How does this project demonstrate application of your engineering knowledge?

Element

Work/Study Episode 4

Overview of the project

Your role and responsibilities

Complexities (using the complexity definitions) and challenges of the project

How does this project demonstrate application of your engineering knowledge?

Element

Knowledge Matrix

Knowledge Element

W/S Episode 1

W/S Episode 2

W/S Episode 3

W/S Episode 4

Application of knowledge from one or more of the natural sciences

Application of knowledge of mathematics

Application of knowledge of engineering fundamentals

Application of specialist engineering knowledge to solve complex problems

Application of knowledge of design methods to solve complex problems

Application of knowledge of key elements of engineering practice

Role of Engineering in Society

Application of advanced knowledge in an area of your discipline

Section four – Supplementary evidence

ACADEMIC TRANSCRIPT(S)

Please attach a certified copy of your academic transcript(s) if you have not already supplied them to Engineering New Zealand.

Work history summary

List your employment history starting from your most recent employment and then chronologically back to the start of your first job.

Ref No

Name of Employing Organisation

Position Title

End mm/yy
Start mm/yy

Key responsibilities, activities undertaken, major achievements and/or projects. These should relate to your practice area description.

Present

Start at

End date:

Start date:

End date:

Start date:

End date:

Start date:

End date:

Start date:

End date:

Start date:

End date:

Start date:

continued professional development (CPD) activities Summary

Description of Activity and Learning.

Please record all relevant CPD activities (e.g. short course, conference, reading, technical lectures, formal study towards qualification, research, discussion groups, workshops, symposia, voluntary service roles) that have extended your professional engineering knowledge and have assisted you to develop the knowledge profile of a professional engineer. Describe the learning outcomes and how these have contributed to your acquiring a Washington Accord level of knowledge.

Was Formal Assessment involved?

What was the outcome?

Date(s)

Actual Hours

Form of Activity

Title of activity

What was the knowledge you acquired?
How have you applied this knowledge in your engineering practice?

APPENDIX ONE

Complexity Definitions

Complex engineering problems

Complex engineering problems have some or all of the following characteristics:

Involve wide-ranging or conflicting technical, engineering, and other issues;

Have no obvious solution and require originality in analysis;

Involve infrequently encountered issues;

Are outside problems encompassed by standards and codes of practice for professional engineering;

Involve diverse groups of stakeholders with widely varying needs;

Have significant consequences in a range of contexts;

Cannot be resolved without in-depth engineering knowledge.

APPENDIX TWO

Disciplines and fields of engineering

Engineering practice fields are loosely defined terms and are used as an indication of the nature of engineering work carried out by engineers practising in an engineering field of practice. The following diagram is a graphical display of the relationships between the various fields and the four core disciplines. Some fields may extend into other fields of scientific endeavour.

Aerospace Engineering

Aerospace engineering is the design, development, and production of aircraft (aeronautical engineering), spacecraft (astronautical engineering) and related systems. Aerospace engineers may specialise in aerodynamics, avionics, structures, control systems or propulsion systems. It may involve planning maintenance programmes, designing repairs and modifications and exercising strict safety and quality controls to ensure airworthy operations.

Bio Engineering

Bioengineering draws heavily on the Chemical Engineering discipline and involves the engineered development of raw materials to produce higher value products, using biological systems (biological catalysts). The description also encompasses the general application of engineering to biological systems to develop new products or solve problems in existing production processes. As examples, bioengineers are found in medical research, genetic science, fermentation industries and industries treating biological wastes.

Building Services

Building Services engineering is the application of mechanical or electrical engineering principles, and an understanding of building structure, to enhance all aspects of the built environment from air conditioning and mechanical ventilation, electrical light and power, fire services, fire safety engineering, water and waste services, data and communications, security and access control, vertical transportation, acoustics and energy management.

Chemical Engineering

Chemical engineering is concerned with the ways in which raw materials are changed into useful and commercial end products such as food, petrol, plastics, paints, paper, ceramics, minerals and metals. Often these processes are carried out at large scale plants. Research of raw materials and their properties, design and development of equipment and the evaluation of operating processes are all part of chemical engineering.

Civil Engineering

Civil engineering is a broad field of engineering concerned with the, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures (buildings, bridges, dams, ports) and infrastructure assets (road, rail, water, sewerage). The Civil engineering discipline underpins several engineering fields such as Structural, Mining, Geotechnical and Transportation engineering, in which civil engineers often specialise. General Civil engineers are likely to be competent to undertake work that relates to one or more of these areas.

Electrical Engineering

Electrical engineering is the field of engineering which deals with the practical application of electricity. It deals with the aspects of planning, design, operation and maintenance of electricity generation and distribution, and use of electricity as a source of energy within major buildings, industrial processing complexes, facilities and transport systems. It includes the associated networks and the equipment involved such as switchboards, cabling, overhead lines/catenaries, earthing, control and instrumentation systems.

Areas of specialisation within the wider electrical engineering discipline, such as electronics and telecommunications are usually concerned with using electricity to transmit information rather than energy. For this reason, electronics and radiocommunications/telecommunications are captured under the field of Information Engineering.

Engineering management

The Engineering Management practice field is used by engineers who manage multi-disciplinary engineering activities that are so multi-disciplined that it is difficult to readily link their engineering practice with any other specific practice field. Project managers, asset managers and engineers working in policy development are likely to use the ‘Engineering Management’ field.

Environmental Engineering

Environmental engineering draws on the Civil and Chemical engineering disciplines to provide healthy water, air and land to enhance human habitation. Environmental engineers devise, implement and manage solutions to protect and restore the environment, within an overall framework of sustainable development. The role of the environmental engineer embraces all of the air, water and soil environments, and the interactions between them.

Fire Engineering

Fire engineering draws on knowledge from the range of engineering disciplines to minimise the risk from fire to health and safety and damage to property through careful design and construction. It requires an understanding of the behaviour of fires and smoke, the behaviour of people exposed to fires and the performance of burning materials and structures, as well as the impact of fire protection systems including detection, alarm and extinguishing systems.

Geotechnical Engineering

Geotechnical engineering involves application of knowledge of earth materials in the design of structures, such as foundations, retaining walls, tunnels, dams and embankments. Geotechnical engineers assess the properties and performance of earth materials such as their stability and strength, and the impact of groundwater.

industrial engineering

Industrial engineering is the application of mechanical and electrical engineering principles to the design and operation of production equipment, production lines and production processes for the efficient production of industrial goods. Industrial engineers understand plant and procedural design, the management of materials and energy, and human factors associated with worker integration with systems. Industrial engineers increasingly draw on specialised knowledge of robotics, mechatronics, and artificial intelligence.

Information engineering

The field of Information engineering is based on the Electrical engineering discipline but also draws heavily from Computer Science. Three areas of further specialisation can be identified:

Software engineering – The development and operation of software-intensive systems that capture, store and process data.

Telecommunications engineering – The development and operation of systems that encode, transmit and decode data via cable systems (including fibre optics) and wireless systems (radiocommunications).

Electronics engineering – The design, development and testing of electronic circuits and networks that use the electrical and electromagnetic properties of electronic components integrated circuits and microprocessors to sense, measure and control processes and systems.

Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical Engineering involves the design, manufacture and maintenance of mechanical systems. Mechanical engineers work across a range of industries and are involved with the design and manufacture of a range of machines or mechanical systems, typically applying principles of hydraulics (fluid control), pneumatics (air pressure control) or thermodynamics (heat energy transfer). Mechanical engineers may specialise in the Building Services or Industrial engineering field.

Mining Engineering

Mining engineering involves extracting and processing minerals from the earth. This may involve investigations, design, construction and operation of mining, extraction and processing facilities.

Petroleum Engineering

Petroleum engineering is a field of engineering relating to oil and gas exploration and production. Petroleum engineers typically combine knowledge of geology and earth sciences with specialised Chemical engineering skills but may also draw on Mechanical engineering expertise to design extraction and production methods and equipment. Petroleum engineering activities are divided into two broad categories:

Upstream – locating oil and gas beneath the earth’s surface and then developing methods to bring them out of the ground.

Downstream – the design and development of plant and infrastructure for the refinement and distribution of the mixture of oil, gas and water components that are extracted.

Structural Engineering

Structural Engineering is a specialised field within the broader Civil engineering discipline that is concerned with the design and construction of structures. Structures might include buildings, bridges, in-ground structures, footings, frameworks and space frames, including those for motor vehicles, space vehicles, ships, aeroplanes and cranes, composed of any structural material including composites and novel materials.

Transportation

Transportation engineering is a specialised field of practice in the civil engineering discipline relating to the movement of goods and people by road, water, rail and air.

A Transportation engineer might specialise in one or more of: pavement design, asset maintenance/management, construction/project management, traffic operations and control, transportation planning and systems analysis, freight transportation and logistics, road safety, railways or public transport systems.