You have been engaged as Competent Person to conduct the façade inspection for a commercial building. Discuss the scope of façade inspection as required by Building and Construction Authority.
One of the shophouses in Chinatown was engulfed in a fire recently. It is a two-story building and was constructed with reinforced concrete frames with steel roof trusses. Your company has been engaged by the owner of the shophouses to verify the structural integrity of the building.
- Discuss THREE (3) typical structural defects for fire-damaged buildings.
- Recommend the diagnostic tools and elaborate on their use for assessment of the structural defects discussed in Question 2(a).
- On June 24, 2021, Champlain Towers South, a 12-story beachfront condominium in the Miami suburb of Surfside, Florida, United States, partially collapsed, causing the death of 98 people. The investigation found that spalling concrete in the basement level was one of the contributing factors.
(i) Discuss TWO (2) possible causes of spalling concrete and explain their
(ii) Formulate and Recommend FIVE (5) prevention actions that can be taken during the design stage, construction stage, and maintenance/operation stage to prevent spalling of concrete.
(iii) Recommend TWO (2) non-destructive tests to diagnose the extent of spalling concrete and elaborate on their usages and limitations.
- Discuss the FIVE (5) causes of cracks in a concrete building.
- Appropriate diagnosis of defects and condition assessment are essential prerequisites for successful defect repair work.
(i) Discuss how systematic and proper diagnosis can help to lower the time, cost, and resources for repairing works.
(ii) Discuss FIVE (5) possible causes of failures in defects repair.
Elaborate any TWO (2) commonly adopted maintenance strategies with TWO (2) benefits and challenges for each maintenance strategy.