• The Inflammatory response & wound healing 

Detail the stages of acute cutaneous wound healing with specific reference to the cytokines and integrins involved.

  • Free radicals and disease/Cell damage

Many diseases have been linked to oxygen-derived free radicals. Using examples from a single disease of your choice, discuss how reactive oxygen species induce cellular damage that contributes to the pathophysiology of your chosen condition.

  • Autoimmune Disorders

Discuss the pathogenesis of coeliac disease with reference to innate and adaptive immune activation

  • Cardiovascular Disorders

A 52-year old male with no past medical history presented to the Accident & Emergency unit with severe headache, sudden left-sided weakness, and imbalance followed by decreased level of consciousness. Head CT scan showed no intracranial hemorrhage and a hyper-dense basilar artery. CT angiography showed a mid-basilar artery occlusion.

He received Alteplase and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and was transferred to a comprehensive stroke center where angiography confirmed mid-basilar artery occlusion. He underwent mechanical thrombectomy of the basilar artery. His neurological exam showed muscle weakness in the left upper and lower limbs. Muscle weakness was persistent when he was discharged 2 weeks later. Rehabilitation started when he was in the hospital and continued after discharge. He had a follow-up appointment 3 months later.

  • Bone & Cartilage

“Some patients seen in the Orthopaedic Department have each been diagnosed with one of the following conditions – Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis.

Outline the general normal histological structure and regeneration of bone and cartilage, and analyze the cellular and/or subcellular remodeling between any two of the named conditions above.”